Men%20on%20the%20Make%20--%20Crusading%2c%20Conquest%2c%20Chivalry%20%2823%20October%202007%29

Men%20on%20the%20Make%20--%20Crusading%2c%20Conquest%2c%20Chivalry%20%2823%20October%202007%29

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H ISTORY 140/141 * F ALL 2007 C AROL S YMES Tuesday, 23 October 2007 Men on the Make: Crusaders, Conquest, and Chivalry Q UESTIONS TO BE A DDRESSED IN L ECTURE ( AND WHICH YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER ) 1. What social and political factors in the tenth and eleventh centuries give rise to a culture of crusading? 2. How does the aggrandizement of Gregory VII’s and Urban II’s papacies contribute to this culture? 3. Why does violence against Jews become part of this new trend? 4. Is the the historian R.I. Moore right to say that the West becomes a “persecuting society” in this era? T ERMS I NTRODUCED IN L ECTURE “feudalism” ~ from the Latin: feodum, “fief, a gift”) homage ~ from the French: homme, “man” // fealty ~ Latin: fidelitas , “faith, faithfulness” vassal ~ Latin: vas, “pledge” // serf ~ Latin: servus, “slave” primogeniture ~ Latin: primus + genitus, “first born” crusade ~ from the French croix , “cross” chivalry ~ from the French cheval, “horse,” and chevalier, “horseman, knight” bull ~ Latin: bulla , “a lead seal” – i.e. a papal charter S OME E VENTS R ELEVANT TO T HIS L ECTURE 962 Otto I “the Great” of Germany, having defeated Magyar and Viking armies, is crowned Emperor 1071 the Seljuk Turks (Sunni Muslims) destroy the army of the Byzantine Empire 1075 Pope Gregory VII issues the Dictatus papæ during the Investiture Controversy with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV 1095 the Byzantine Emperor Alexius asks Pope Urban II for help in raising an army against the Turks Urban calls instead for a pre-emptive strike against Muslims in Jerusalem and the Holy Land 1096 the First Crusade begins with the slaughter of Jewish communities at Mainz, Speyer, Worms
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Men%20on%20the%20Make%20--%20Crusading%2c%20Conquest%2c%20Chivalry%20%2823%20October%202007%29

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