The%20Four%20Horsemen%2c%20or%20Apocalypse%20Then%20%20%286%20November%202007%29

The%20Four%20Horsemen%2c%20or%20Apocalypse%20Then%20%20%286%20November%202007%29

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H ISTORY 140/141 * F ALL 2007 C AROL S YMES Tuesday, 6 November 2007 The Four Horsemen: Apocalypse Then Q UESTIONS T O B E A DDRESSED IN L ECTURE How did the building of nation-states in the thirteenth century cause conflict in the fourteenth? What was the “Babylonian Captivity” of the papacy (1309-1377)? How did the Great Famine (1315-1322) affect Europe? What were the causes of the Black Death, and how were these understood by contemporaries? A DDITIONAL S OURCES C ITED IN L ECTURE The Book of Revelation ( Apocalypse ) 6:1-8: And I saw, and behold, a white horse, and its rider had a bow; and a crown was given to him, and he went out conquering and to conquer. . . . And out came another horse, bright red; its rider was permitted to take peace from the earth, so that men would slay one another; and he was given a great sword. . . . And behold, a black horse, and its rider had a balance in his hand . . . And behold, a pale horse, and its rider’s name was Death, and Hell followed after him. And they were given power over the earth, to kill with the sword and with famine and with pestilence. An account of the Great Famine (England, 1315-1316): “[T]he hand of God is raised against us. For in the past year there was such plentiful rain that men could scarcely harvest the corn or bring it safely to barn. Now, worse has happened. For the floods of rain have rotted the seed . . . and in many places the
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The%20Four%20Horsemen%2c%20or%20Apocalypse%20Then%20%20%286%20November%202007%29

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