AppK

AppK - K.1 Introduction K-2 K.2 The Early Development of...

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Unformatted text preview: K.1 Introduction K-2 K.2 The Early Development of Computers (Chapter 1) K-2 K.3 The Evolution of Instruction Sets (Appendices B, I, and J) K-9 K.4 The Development of Pipelining and Instruction-Level Parallelism (Chapters 2 and 3; Appendices A and G) K-18 K.5 The History of Multiprocessors and Parallel Processing (Chapter 4; Appendices E, F, and H) K-34 K.6 The Development of Memory Hierarchy and Protection (Chapter 5; Appendix C) K-52 K.7 The History of Magnetic Storage, RAID, and I/O Buses (Chapter 6) K-59 K Historical Perspectives and References If . . . history . . . teaches us anything, it is that man in his quest for knowl- edge and progress, is determined and cannot be deterred. John F. Kennedy address at Rice University (1962) Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. George Santayana The Life of Reason (1905), vol. 2, ch 3. K-2 n Appendix K Historical Perspectives and References This appendix provides historical background on some of the key ideas presented in the chapters. We may trace the development of an idea through a series of machines or describe significant projects. If youre interested in examining the initial development of an idea or machine or interested in further reading, refer- ences are provided at the end of each section. Section K.2 starts us off with the invention of the digital computer and corre- sponds to Chapter 1. Section K.3 on instruction set architecture covers Appendi- ces B, I, and J. Section K.4 on pipelining and instruction level parallelism corresponds to Chapters 2 and 3, and Appendices A and G. Section K.5 on multi- processors and parallel programming covers Chapter 4 and Appendices E, F, and H. Section K.6 on memory hierarchy corresponds to Chapter 5 and Appendix C. Finally, Section K.7 on I/O corresponds to Chapter 6. In this historical section, we discuss the early development of digital computers and the development of performance measurement methodologies. The First General-Purpose Electronic Computers J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the Moore School of the University of Pennsylvania built the worlds first fully operational electronic general-purpose computer. This machine, called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), was funded by the U.S. Army and became operational during World War II, but it was not publicly disclosed until 1946. ENIAC was used for comput- ing artillery firing tables. The machine was enormous100 feet long, 8 1 / 2 feet high, and several feet wide. Each of the 20 ten-digit registers was 2 feet long. In total, there were 18,000 vacuum tubes. Although the size was three orders of magnitude bigger than the size of the average machines built today, it was more than five orders of magnitude slower, with an add taking 200 microseconds. The ENIAC provided conditional jumps and was programmable, which clearly distinguished it from earlier calculators....
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AppK - K.1 Introduction K-2 K.2 The Early Development of...

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