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class6 - CSCI 233 Internet Protocols Class 6 David C....

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1 CSCI 233 Internet Protocols Class 6 David C. Roberts
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2 Topics Internet Multicasting TCP/IP over ATM Networks Mobile IP Private Networks NAT VPN
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3 Broadcasting Broadcasting—most common form of multipoint delivery One copy of a packet to each destination Bus networks broadcast just one packet Switched networks must forward the packet Broadcast addresses recognized in hardware Computing resources consumed on every host
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4 Multicasting Multicast—single packet delivered to a group of machines Range of multicast addresses is reserved for specific hardware Hosts set network adapters to recognize some particular multicast address Multicast addressed packets must be forwarded to all parts of the network
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5 IP Multicast Group address—each group has a unique class D address, permanent or temporary Number of groups—addresses for up to 2 28 simultaneous multicast groups Dynamic group membership—host can join, leave a group any time Hardware—can use hardware multicast Internetwork forwarding—multicast routers needed to forward multicast between networks Transmission—any host can send to any group
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6 The Concept Multicast addresses Local autonomy in address assignment Addresses useful worldwide Notification and delivery mechanism Inform routers about groups Transfer multicast packets to hosts Internetwork forwarding Efficient routing along shortest paths Don’t route to networks with no group members
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7 IP Multicast Addresses Bits 4 through 31 identify a specific multicast group 1110—multicast address Address range: 224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255 Up to 2 28 simultaneous multicast groups
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8 Permanent IP Multicast Addresses
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9 Multicast Semantics Multicast address only a destination address No ICMP error messages generated about multicast datagrams TTL field in an multicast datagram is honored Question: what happens when I ping a multicast address? Why?
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10 Multicast Routing Not all routers are multicast routers Host does not know which are multicast Host sends packet using multicast address Multicast routers listen for all multicast datagrams, route them appropriately Host does not have to address multicast datagram to a multicast router Multicast capability is provided by routers, not hosts
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11 Multicast Scope Scope of a multicast group—range of group members All on same network: scope is restricted to one network All in same organization: scope limited to one organization Methods of controlling scope: TTL controls the range Administrative scoping: routers forbidden to forward to the restricted space
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12 Host Participation Possible levels of participation of a host in multicasting: For an application to multicast, host must have an API for application to declare intent to join or leave a
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This note was uploaded on 09/03/2010 for the course CS 233 taught by Professor Davidc.roberts during the Fall '10 term at GWU.

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class6 - CSCI 233 Internet Protocols Class 6 David C....

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