August 30 Notes

August 30 Notes - PSYC 1001 OUTLINE FOR TEST 1 I. Basic...

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PSYC 1001 OUTLINE FOR TEST 1 I. Basic Psychology A. Definition of psychology -- science of behavior and mental processes B. History 1. Philosophers/Theologians (Plato, Aristotle, Christianity,  Descartes, Bacon, Wundt, James) 2. Beliefs about abnormal Exorcism Bloodletting Ex. leaches relaxation/diet exorcism mental institutions -treat very badly because they believed the person was not  there and they would try to beat the demons out of them,  but they were really just mentally ill. Pinel - reform -- (Dix too) b Deinstitutionalization 3. Birth of psych and beyond first psych lab—Wundt 1879 -in the areas of sensation and perception. Freud – psychoanalysis (first therapy) 1900 - 1920 -- Behavior is  influenced by unconscious (not aware) motives Behaviorism -- 1910 - 1950s—Study overt behavior not mind Gestalt Psychology -- 1910 - 1940-- The whole is different than  the sum of parts Humanism -- 1950s - present—Focus on the individual and  his/her feelings, subjective experience, potential for growth
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Cognitive psychology - 1950s to present—Focus on mental  operations Biological psychology - 1950s to present—Focus on physiological  bases of behavior Other areas—Social, health, business, developmental,  measurement, evolutionary, socio-cultural C. Psychology Today 1. research areas 2. professional specialties 3. employment 4. careers II. Research Methods A. Scientific Method -- Why use the scientific method? Why not use common sense? B. Descriptive methods —describes what is happening, observations 1. case study—in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals. 2. naturalistic observation - observe subjects in their natural environment 3. surveys that describe C. Correlational methods— examines the relationship between two variables * you get strength and direction of relationship * can be either positive or negative ex) positive relationship -chart goes  up  to the right ex) negative correlation -chart goes  down  to the right ex) no correlation -chart is scattered major disadvantage to correlational research—CANNOT INFER CAUSALITY D. Experimental methods— manipulate one or more variables while controlling all  others 1. true experiment terms IV - independent variable—the variable that the experimenter manipulates; also the cause DV - dependent variable—the variable measured for changes or differences; also the effect treatment/experimental group—the group that receives the IV control group—the group that does NOT get the IV random assignment to groups - individuals have an equal chance of being assigned to
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either/any group Hypot: IV causes DV. INFER CAUSALITY
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August 30 Notes - PSYC 1001 OUTLINE FOR TEST 1 I. Basic...

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