Mark Duffield- Post-Modern Conflict: Warlords, post-adjustment states and private protection(1998)
-Idea of post-modern conflict addresses emergence of political projects in the South, including
qualified state forms, which no longer need to establish territorial, bureaucratic, or consent-
based political authority. Rather than scarcity of breakdown, despite high social costs
involved, protracted instability can be associated with innovative and expanding forms of
-Warlords, for example, have forged new and viable links with intl orgs and global
markets. Many post-adjustment rulers, in terms of state debureaucratisation and embrace of
free market have adopted warlord type strategies.
-Changing architecture of nation-state has also weakened the rule of law; created a
demand for private protection at all levels within emerging system.
war not as irrational or abnormal event, or breakdown of system, rather as the
emergence of alternative system of profit and power.
-Most conflicts today are occurring within rather than between states.
Militia groups replace regular armies, and internal wars transmute into protracted
crises, the boundaries between such things as war, crime, and peace appear increasingly
vague and blurred.
-Present transformation result of changing nature of nation-state; from early 1970s the
competance of nation-state began to erode bc of globalisation.
-Globalisation and economic deregulation, growing influence of markets has reduced
power and legitimacy of nation-states.
-Growing importance of networks and cross-cutting linkages is central to transition from govt
to governance- from hierarchical patterns of negotiation and d-making replaced by
cooperative netork like types of negotiation and bargaining.
New Medievalism (Cerny)- rather than concentrating sovereignty, fedual pol. auth was
shaped by its parcelling out; creation of zones of authority with overlapping boundaries.
-Characterized by growing importance of identity politics, ethnicity, and fragmented
loyalties. Rule of law absent in some places.
-Regionalisation of North- attempt by northern rulers to compensate for declining competance
of nation-states (NAFTA, EU)
-The concentration of conventional economic activity within northern regional systems has
intensified the problems of state transformation in the South.
-Southern rulers have had to devise adaptive and innovative strategies for survival.
They have forged new alliances with intl actors, including commercial ties to develop the
informalised economy (illegal or semilegal activities.)
-Expansion of deregulated global markets important strand in southern adaptation.
-Intra-state war vs. post-modern conflict- intra-state war usually associated with traditional
views of nation-state, that is a territorial form of bureaucratic and juridicial political authority
where rulers govern by consent. Post-modern conflict- emergence in past decades of political
projects in South which no longer seek to establish territorial/bureaucratic or consent based