Eco 2_Eco of Inds and Spp

Eco 2_Eco of Inds and Spp - Ecology Lecture 2 The levels of...

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Unformatted text preview: Ecology, Lecture 2: The levels of organization concept Biosphere Ecosystems Cells Organs Organelles Communities Atoms Tissues Populations Organisms Molecules Ecology of Individuals & Species The levels of organization concept The study of individual behavior (ethology) Learning, problem solving, cognition, and ecology Behavioral ecology, trade-offs, and optimality models Ecology of social groups and species 1 2 A textbook example of the levels of organization The ecological levels 3 4 Ethology The scientific study of animal behavior Fixed a 5 6 Honeybee communication The round dance (food is nearby) Karl von Frisch 1886–1982 Karl von Frisch 1886–1982 7 8 Niko Tinbergen 1907–1988 Nest K arl von Frisch 1886–1982 Landmarks (pinecone ring) 9 10 Niko Tinbergen 1907–1988 Konrad Lorenz 1903–1989 Nest Landmarks repositioned 11 12 Social learning Imprinting Learning and problem solving influence behavior and ecology Cognition Spatial learning Sanz 2004 The American Naturalist 164: 567-581 Associative learning Social learning 13 14 Cognitive flexibility (Corvus moneduloides) Associative learning 15 Weir et al. 2002 Science 297: 981 16 Behavioral Ecology The study of the evolution and ecology of animal behavior Optimal 60 foraging 50 100 125 30 Average number of drops Total flight height 75 20 Drop height preferred by crows (5.23 m) 50 Behavior varies among individuals, and that variation may have a genetic basis, and thus behavior may be acted on my natural selection Crows & Whelks 17 10 0 2 3 5 7 15 25 Drop height (m) Total flight height 40 Fig. 51-19 (# of drops × drop height in m) Avg. # of drops 18 Safety in numbers? Ecology of group living 19 20 21 22 23 24 ...
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