HYBRIDIZATION - H 2p E 2s N: [He]2s 2 2p 3 . . N H H H E N:...

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Valence-Bond Theory (VB theory) Uses orbitals to describe bonding H atom H atom 1s-orbital 1s-orbital H 2
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The two H atoms come together to form a bond with paired spin
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H H This is called a sigma-bond ( σ -bond) Orbital overlap
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H Cl H Cl 1s 3p 1s 3p z
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H Cl 1s 3p z 1s 3p
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H Cl 1s 3p z
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N N 2p 2p
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2p 2p 2p 2p σ -bond N N
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N N
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p x p y p z
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p x p y p z σ -bond
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p x p y p z p-bond from p y
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p x p y p z p-bond from p x and behind also
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N N Notice the node
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A single bond is a σ -bond A double bond is a σ -bond + a p-bond A triple bond is a σ -bond + two p-bonds
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Orbital Hybridization Carbon is the most common: [He]2s 2 2p 2 Each time a bond if formed the energy of the system is lowered (highly favorable) 2p E 2s . . C H H
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2p E 2s 2sp 3 E Hybridized orbitals Intermediate energy New orbitals made up from s an p orbitals Similar to resonance
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2p E 2s . . C H H C H H H H 2sp 3 E Hybridized orbitals
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sp 3 hybridized orbitals
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2p E 2s 2sp 3 Each can form a σ -bond [He]2s 2 2p 2 [He]2h 4 denotes hybridized orbital
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3D View
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H C 1s orbital 2sp 3 orbital σ [H(s), C(sp 3 )]
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SiH(CH 3 ) 3 3sp 3 Si: [Ne]3h 4 Si C H H H 2sp 3 C: [He]2h 4 σ [Si(sp 3 ), C(sp 3 )]
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. . N H H
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Unformatted text preview: H 2p E 2s N: [He]2s 2 2p 3 . . N H H H E N: [He]2h 5 2sp 3 Already occupied [N(sp 3 ), H(s)] BH 3 2p E 2s B: [He]2s 2 2p 1 BH 3 2p E 2s B: [He]2s 2 2p 1 BH 3 E B: [He]2s 2 2p 1 [B(sp 2 ), H(s)] sp 2 Linear 2 sp Trigonal 3 sp 2 planar Tetrahedral 4 sp 3 Trigonal 5 sp 3 d bipyramidal Octahedral 6 sp 3 d 2 e-arrangement # of atomic / hybrid orbitals hybridization Quick way to determine the hybridization Determine the VSEPR electron configuration formula ie. AX n E m Determine its electron arrangement ie. AX n+m Determine the shape of the electron arrangement Draw the Lewis structure N H H H AX 3 E AX 4 tetrahedral NH 3 Linear 2 sp Trigonal 3 sp 2 planar Tetrahedral 4 sp 3 Trigonal 5 sp 3 d bipyramidal Octahedral 6 sp 3 d 2 e-arrangement # of atomic / hybrid orbitals hybridization...
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This note was uploaded on 09/04/2010 for the course CHEM 6A chem 6a taught by Professor Cz during the Spring '10 term at UCSD.

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HYBRIDIZATION - H 2p E 2s N: [He]2s 2 2p 3 . . N H H H E N:...

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