Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human Anatomy and Physiology - Human Anatomy and Physiology...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 9/6/10 Human Anatomy and Physiology Exam One
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9/6/10 Cardiovascular System- Blood Introduction General Characteristics 1.) Classified as a type of connective tissue 2.) travels through body In blood vessels a.) Arteries carry oxygenated blood from left side of the heart (1) Branch into capillaries where gas and nutrient exchange take place b.) Veins carry deoxygenated blood to right side of the heart 3.) Maintain Homeostasis a.) Transport of substances from one part of the body to another
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9/6/10 B.) Composition of Blood 1.) Plasma a.) liquid portion of blood b.) 91% of H20 c.) remaining 9% are mostly plasma proteins i.) albumin
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9/6/10 ii.) Globulins -38% of plasma proteins -some act as antibodies =formed in response to antigens -may bind to other substances to act as transported molecules iii.) Fibrinogen
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9/6/10 2.) Formed Elements (blood cells and platelets) a.) production of formed elements i.) process known as hemopoiesis ii.) in the embryo/fetus takes place in: -yolk sac, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, red blood marrow(in
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9/6/10 b.) Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) i.) Structure -biconcave discs with edges thicker
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9/6/10 iii.) Hb -protein made of = (4) polypeptide chains l (2) alpha subunits l (2) beta subunits = (4) “Heme” groups containing (1) Fe atom each
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9/6/10 iv.) Life History of RBCs - RBC formation is called erythropoiesis (type of hemopoiesis) and is stimulated by low plasma 02 levels -Erthyropoiesis is regulated by a hormone called erythropoietin =made by the kidneys
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9/6/10 v.) Breakdown of Hb from lysed (burst) RBCs -remnants get trapped in the liver and spleen (graveyard for RBCs) =macrophages enzymatically separate the heme from globin l globin is broken into amino acids to be used in the protection of new
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9/6/10 c.) White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) i.) 4,000-11,000 mm3/blood ii.) lack Hb, but do have all cellular organelles ii.) Function = to protect against invading microorganisms
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9/6/10 v.) (5) types of WBCs 1. Neutrophils = most common = nucleus is multi-lobed = cytoplasmic granules stain purple with acidic or basic dyes l contain the antibodies lysozyme and defensins
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9/6/10 2. Eosinophils = 1-4% of WBCs = Nucleus is bi-lobed = cytoplasmic granules stain red with eosin dyes l contain chemicals(toxins) that function to protect against parasitic worm infections
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9/6/10 3. Basophils =rarest WBCs (? .5%) =nucleus has (2) indistinct lobes =cytoplasmic granules stain blue with basic dyes l contains heparin (blood thinner) l contain chemicals that facilitate/ enhance an immune/allergic
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9/6/10 4. Lymphocytes = 2nd most common WBC =smallest (can be smaller than RBC) =no granules =large, dark nucleus = play a large role in cellular immunity:
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9/6/10 5. Monocytes = 4-8% of all WBCs = largest = no granules = distinctive kidney shaped = differentiate into macrophages which function into phagocytosis
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9/6/10 vi.) Life History of WBCs =most found in lymphoid tissue (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, etc) =production of WBCs is called leukopoiesis and takes place in red bone marrow
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Human Anatomy and Physiology - Human Anatomy and Physiology...

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