1Unit 11 Thermal Behavior of Matter and Heat Engines 11.1Thermal expansion 11.2Heat and mechanical work 11.3Heat capacity 11.4Specific heat 11.5Latent Heat 11.6Conduction 11.7Convection 11.8Radiation 11.9Heat engines and the Carnot cycle 11.1Thermal expansion Most substances expand when heated. The expansion of liquid, such as mercury or alcohol, results in a column of liquid of variable height within the glass neck of the thermometer. 11.11Linear expansion The change in the length of rod is directly proportional to the change in temperature. The constant of proportionality is referred to as αand L0 is the initial length of the rod. TLL∆=∆0αSI unit for α: K−1= ( Co)−1. Alternatively, we can refer αas the fractional change of length per unit change of temperature, e.g. 01LLTα⎛⎞∆=⎜⎟∆⎝⎠.
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