2.1 History and Development of Forensic Science - notes

2.1 History and Development of Forensic Science - notes -...

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p.1 YSCN0017 From Sherlock Holmes to modern forensic science Teachers: Dr. W.T. Chan (Chemistry) Week 14, 15, 17, 18 Dr. A.S.T. Wong (School of Biological Sciences) Week 19, 20, 22, 23 Prof. D.L. Phillips (Chemistry) Week 24, 25, 26, 27 Laboratory class: Experiments on hair and fiber Week 23 (Kadoorie Building) Textbook: R. Saferstein, “Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science”, 9 th edition, Pearson Prentice Hall (2007). Course Web Site: WebCT Code: YSCN0017 Assessment Methods: Participation (10%) – random attendance checks Quiz (30%) – Multiple choices and/or short questions Case Study + Assignment + Laboratory Report (60%) 1. History and Development of Forensic Science Forensic science can be broadly defined as the application of science to criminal and civil laws. Forensic scientists’ role is to supply accurate and objective information related to a crime. Logic and technology are required. The Origin of Forensic Science The ancient Romans held their Courts or any other discussion in open spaces or market places. Therefore, anything that has to do with the Courts come to be known as “forensic”. The word “forensic” has its root in the Latin word “ forum ” which originally meant “open space” or “market place”. Forensic science owes its origins to those individuals who developed the principles and techniques for the identification and comparison of physical evidence and to those who merged these principles into a coherent discipline that could be practically applied to a criminal justice system. The Earliest Forensic Scientists Song Ci (1186 - 1249) Song Ci was a forensic medical expert in the Song Dynasty. He wrote the classic reference Xi Yuan Ji Lu (Collected Cases of Rectified Injustice) based on many historical cases and his own experience. The book documented the earliest autopsy reports and analysis records. The book was esteemed by generations of law practitioners. It has been translated into English, German, Japanese, French and other languages.
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p.2 Mathieu Orfila (1787—1853) Orfila is considered the father of modern forensic toxicology. In 1814, he published the first scientific treatise on the detection of poisons and their effects on animals. The treatise established forensic toxicology as rigorous scientific discipline. Alphonse Bertillon (1853—1914) Bertillon is known as the father of criminal identification. He devised the first scientific system of personal identification ( anthropometry ), a systematic procedure of taking body measurements as a means of distinguishing one individual from another. Francis Galton (1822—1911) Galton undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints. His book “ Finger Prints ”, published in 1892, contained the first statistical analysis to support the uniqueness of fingerprints as a personal identification method. His work went on to describe the basic principles of fingerprint classification and filing that form the present system of identification by fingerprints. Leone Lattes (1887—1954)
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2.1 History and Development of Forensic Science - notes -...

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