Study Helper for Exam 3
PSY100, Fall 2007
, and describe the difference between classical conditioning, operant
conditioning, and observational learning.
Do you think you are
in PSY100 and
in your other courses, according to the definition presented in the text?
Learning: A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.
Classical conditioning is association of stimuli, where as operant conditioning is learning in
which strengthened or diminished by a reinforcer or punishment. According to the definition
I believe we are Learning according to the definition in the text
Describe, in detail, how Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate to the tone of a bell.
the UR, US, CR, and CS.
In the same way, describe how you might have learned to
respond to the smell of fresh baking bread with salivation, or how a child might respond
to a person in a white lab coat with fear.
Uncontrolled Response is salivation with the uncontrolled stimulus that is food. When paired
with the controlled stimulus of ringing the bell causes the dog to have the controlled response
of salivating when the animal hears the bell. You associate the smell of baked bread by
associating it with the eating of
You associate the times you see a doctor with
the times you saw him because you felt sick.
Know the following terms: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization,
Acquisition: the initial stage of classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral
stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a
conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Extinction: The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when
an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant
conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Spontaneous Recovery: The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned
Generalization: The tendency once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the
conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a
conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal a unconditioned stimulus.
Is our capacity for conditioning constrained by biology?
No we are biologically adaptive.
If a cancer patient immediately feels nauseous upon entering the waiting room of her
doctor's office, what are the CS and CR?
The controlled stimulus is the waiting room and the controlled response is the nauseous
feeling she gets when entering the waiting room of the doctors office.