AntLabReview - Lecture 1 Orientation and Direction...

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Lecture 1 Orientation and Direction Anatomical Position: arms at side of body, palms forward Planes: Sagittal: unequal left and right halves Mid-sagittal: equal left and right halves Transverse: upper and lower sections (usually refer to perpendicular sections of body) Frontal/Coronal: front and back sections Superior: closer to head Inferior: closer to feet Anterior/ventral: closer to front of body Posterior/dorsal: closer to back of body Medial: closer to midline Lateral: farther away from midline Superficial: closer to surface of body Deep: farther away from surface of body Proximal: closer to medial plane; only with limbs Distal: farther away from medial plane; just limbs Angular movements: 1. Flexion: reduces joint angle; in anterior/posterior plane. 2. Extension: increases the angle of the joint. Extension reverses flexion. Extension past anatomical position is hyperextension . 3. Abduction: movement away from the midline 4. Adduction: movement towards the midline Movements at Specific Joints: Shoulder/hip joint: Medial rotation : rotate inward towards body
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Lateral rotation : rotate outward away from body Circumduction : movement describes a cone in space Elbow Joint: Pronation : palm facing forward back Supination : palm facing back forward (holding a cup of soup) Shoulder girdle : Elevation : superior movement; ex: shrugging Depression: inferior movement; reversal of elevation Protraction: shoulder blades move away from spine; same as abduction Retraction: shoulder blades move towards spine; same as adduction Knee joint : Flexion : lower leg moves posteriorly, not anteriorly (opposite of most other joints) Extension : lower leg moves anteriorly Ankle : Dorsiflexion : toes move up towards leg Plantar Flexion: opposite of dorsiflexion; pointed toes Inversion : foot rolls to lateral side, inside arch is visible; same as supination Eversion : foot rolls in medial plane, outside arch is visible; same as pronation Bone Landmark Terminology Elevation and Projections Process : structure that sticks out Ramus : extension of bone; typically at angle to body of bone Tendon/Ligament attachment points Trochanter : large, rough projection Tuberosity : small, rough projection Tubercle : small, smoother, rounded bump Crest: raised ridge of bone Line: raised ridge, but narrower, lower than crest Bone/Bone articulation Articular : describes bone/bone meeting surface
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Head : rounded region at extremity of long bone Neck : just inferior to head Condyle : large swellings on either side of ends of limb bones Facet : smooth, flat, oval-shaped surface o Demi-facet: small facet Trochleas : smooth, round, articulating area on humerus Spine : sharp, pointed extension of bone Depressions and Openings: o Fossa : wide, smooth, shallow, concave surface (knee, elbow, hip) o Foramen : hole (eye socket)
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AntLabReview - Lecture 1 Orientation and Direction...

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