Lab Practical 2 Review - Lab Practical 2 Review Lecture 6...

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Lab Practical 2 Review Lecture 6 –The Digestive System Oral cavity Tongue : bundle of skeletal muscles o Manipulates food for chewing and deglutition (swallowing) Hard palate : thin, horizontal bony plate, formed by maxilla and palatine bones . o Anterior roof of mouth Soft palate : arch-shaped soft tissue o Back of the roof of mouth o Between oropharynx and nasopharynx Uvula : small muscular process o Covered in mucosa; on soft palate near back of throat Esophagus Esophagus: pierces diaphragm through esophageal hiatus (hole) Located at level of vertebrae T10 Stomach parts Gastroesophageal/cardiac sphincter : where contents of esophagus empty into stomach Fundus : formed by upper curvature of organ Body : main central region Pylorus : lower section of organ, facilitates emptying of contents into small intestine Pyloric sphincter: where contents of stomach empty into small intestine. Stomach Function Functions include mechanical and chemical digestion, propulsion . Contains rugae and thick, muscular, 3-layered wall to help with mechanical digestion. Chemical digestion achieved with pepsin Gastric lipase splits butterfat molecules into milk Chyme is produced in stomach – partially digested food and gastric juice Small intestine parts Duodenum : shortest part
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o Has middle Brunner’s glands (produce alkaline/HCO 3 mucus to offset acidic chyme from stomach) Jejunum : middle part Ileum : joins large intestine (cecum) at ileocecal valve (ICV) The small intestine functions in: o Mechanical and chemical digestion o Propulsion o Absorption (90%) Small intestine microanatomy Covered in plicae circular (folds to increase SA for absorption of nutrients) Villi project from plicae circular, which area covered with microvilli Villus contains lacteal (modified lymphatic capillaries that absorb food into lymphatic system) and capillaries Enzymes include maltase, sucrose, lactase, peptidases, ribonuclease, and deoxyribonuclease Gall bladder and pancreas Gallbladder: stores concentrated bile (produced in liver) o Releases as needed for digestion Pancreas: endocrine function; secretes pancreatic juice containing H2O, NaCl, and digestive enzymes . Exocrine function: produced, releases hormones into circulation Large intestine Extends from end of ileum to anus Functions include: o Completion of absorption (H2O and minerals) o Manufactures vitamins B, K by bacteria o Formation/expulsion of feces Liver Second largest organ in the body Divided into 4 lobes o Right and left anatomical lobes o Caudate (superior) and quadrate (inferior) lobes Functions include:
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o Produces bile salts for emulsification/absorption of fats o Breakdown poisons Example: nitrogenous waste urea o Converts monosaccharides to glycogen/fat OR uses it for energy source Falciform ligament : connects right and left lobes Two main blood vessels on right lobe that supply liver with blood
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This note was uploaded on 09/06/2010 for the course KIN 324K taught by Professor Farrar during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Lab Practical 2 Review - Lab Practical 2 Review Lecture 6...

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