Phil 262 Notes

Phil 262 Notes - Phil 262 Notes • • Arete Excellence...

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Unformatted text preview: Phil 262 Notes • 08/30/07 • Arete- Excellence and Virtue, Humans posses • Virtue- English narrow a moral notion, notion that has connotations that are based on a different ethical • Excellence- English too broad • “Culture of Arete” Human Excellence • Art of Religious Icons o ex: Buddha –Cambodia o Christian Imagery- Medieval • Kouros Statues- Human being, athletic male youth. First Greek artwork. • Religious Text most important to Greeks o The Odyssey o The Iliad • Immortality- Being remembered • Competitive Events- the Olympics • Evaluate success-public discussion • Socrates- Philosopher of Arete, of The Virtues. Interested in t ruth and wisdom. Doesn’t take money. • “He knows that he knows nothing” Wants people to realize that they do not know what excellence and wisdom are. • Socratic method- Asking questions to get people to contradict themselves. To make people realize that they do not know what they are talking about. • Sophists- people who had tools to train people in argumentation to use in a court of lave to be persuasive. Not interested in truth. . PERSUASION. Charged money. • Greek Ethics o Socrates Plato Aristotle- Ethicists o Ethics- study of virtue, virtues, Arete o Modern Ethics- Moral theory, right and wrong o Excellence- respect and admiration, pride (Greek value) o Someone who lacks t rue belief does not have knowledge o The Republic-Justice, broad, modern, related to the law • Justice o Justice is a property of an individual o Justice is the interest of the stronger, belongs to ideology (Marx), comes from the ruling classes telling people to behave in a certain way to serve their own interests o Moderation o Wisdom o Courage 9/4/07 • The Republic • Goodness • Instrumentally for the sake of further goodness, ex money, surgery • Inherently- ex eating ice cream • Both- ex. Exercise • Justice instrumentally valuable- ex. Appearing to act justly • The only point in acting justly is having people think that you are just and do not have to suffer from the effects of injustice. o Glocens challenge Gives a defense and show inherent value of justice…. Why should I be moral? o Social contract theory of Justice • Hobbes, Locke . . . . • State of nature, origin of justice, standard modern theory of Justice • Just person is happier than the unjust person . . . Socrates • “happy”- eudemonia- human flourishing, well being • eu- good daimonia- spirit, soul Literally the soul is in good condition • ergon- essential function. . . organ compared to soul o The Soul- psyche- the mind • Essential function- life principal, to superintend, demand, deliberate. . . . govern the body or person • TO BE HAPPY YOUR SOUL MUST BE IN GOOD CONDITION FOR UR SOUL TO BE IN GOOD CONDITION IT MUST BE ABLE TO GOVERN WELL . . . . JUSTICE IS A NESSESARY FUNCTION. . ....
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Phil 262 Notes - Phil 262 Notes • • Arete Excellence...

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