Genetic Variation

Genetic Variation - Genetic Variation April 27, 2006 DNA...

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Genetic Variation April 27, 2006 DNA • Deoxyribonucleic acid • Blueprint of life • Double stranded molecule • Ladder, double helix • Each rung: Nucleotide Nucleotide • Composed of one sugar (deoxyribose) one phospate, one nitrogenous base • 4 types of nitrogenous bases: • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) • Thymine (T) • Cytosine (C) • Follows rules of  complimentary base pairing •  Adenine only with thymine (AT) •  Cytosine only with guanine (CG) Base pairs held together by hydrogen bond Complimentary Base Pairing •  Bases on one strand are always complementary (matched) to bases on other strand A T C G G C T A Genetic information is encoded in the sequence of base pairs Genes
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• Certain segments of DNA function as genes • Genes: direct the synthesis of a specific protein that can play either a structural or functional role in the cell • Gene is expressed with protein it codes for is produced • Protein produced by RNA: ribonucleic acid • Backbone made of  ribose  instead of deoxyribose RNA • DNA issues instructions to the cell via RNA • RNA carries the information from DNA to the rest of the cell and directs synthesis of protein • A small portion of DNA strand “unzips” • RNA forms complimentary bases • Bases in RNA different from DNA • DNA: Adenine-Thymine, Guanine-Cytosine • RNA: Adenine- Uracil , Guanine-Cytosine DNA: deoxyribose and phosphorus in backbone RNA: ribose and phosphorus makes up backbone Adenine-Thymine Guanine-Cytosine Adenine-Uracil Guanine-Cytosine --Process of RNA getting the message from DNA is called  transcription --RNA then moves into cell and undergoes  translation : cell translates RNA message into protein Replication • DNA is passed from one generation to the next • DNA must be copied
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• Enzyme breaks H bonds • “unzipping” DNA strand • Free-floating nucleotides attach to open DNA strands • DNA polymerases link new nucleotides
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Genetic Variation - Genetic Variation April 27, 2006 DNA...

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