Southwest - THE SOUTHWEST Precolumbian Southwestern United...

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1 THE SOUTHWEST Precolumbian Southwestern United States Sociocultural Features Societies integrated through matrilineal kinship/moieties or voluntary associations (sodalities) Grasshopper--raven and macaw moiety Sodalities integrate different kin groups (ceremony) Cooperation, not centralization [in spite of elaborate infrastructure] Deeply intertwined with Mesoamerican culture (N-S Sierra Madre corridors) and Great Basin/Californian links The Players Mexican Pueblos (Casa Grande AD 770-1261--likened to Hudson Bay Company) *Declined--warfare, overpopulation for ecological conditions, volcanic eruption Mogollon--roots for SW cultures *4000 BP incipient cultivation, pithouses *AD 1000 distinctiveness diminishes (Anasazi?) *pioneered ground surface dwellings, masonry, multi-roomed houses,
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2 ceremony Note Mimbres (AD 1050-1200) Hohokam Mesoamerican pioneers, migrant, refugees, merchants? *Note ballcourts, platform mounds, irrigation, turquoise jewelry *Group distinctiveness gone by AD 1400 Anasazi (Hisatsinom) *vigorous culture initially overshadowed by Hohokam and Mogollon *cultural center Four Corners--Overton to Southern Utah Small time mesa dwellers, moved to riverine settings, building Chacoan complexes or Mesa Grande like cliff dwellings. *Mesoamerican influence line of sight signal systems astronomical/ceremonial sites *trade systems linked Chihuahua, Gulf of California and the California Coast through the Mohave run-off water systems Diaspora (AD 1200-1400) Chacoans move to Western and Eastern Pueblos, Mesa Verde follows next century Why? *Extended Drought *Long term changes in seasonality *Regional drying interrupting trade networks *salinity--irrigation *disease *inter-Pueblo conflict Result: Anasazi/Mogollon-->Puebloans Hohokam-->Pima/Papago Hakatayan -->Yumans (Colorado River Mohave, Havasupai, Cocopa)
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3 THE PUEBLOANS Overview of Modern Southwest Puebloans Eastern-- Speakers of Keresan (unique to Pueblos), Tanoan (Aztec-Tanoan group of Uto-Aztecan family), see map and table OHP Western-- Speakers of Uto-Aztecan [Hopi], Penutian[Zuni] (a linguistic grouping of various hard to classify languages), Keresan [Acoma]--again see map and table OHP
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Southwest - THE SOUTHWEST Precolumbian Southwestern United...

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