history of africa on whole

History of africa - The History of Africa commences with the first emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa continuing into its modern present as a

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The History of Africa commences with the first emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa , continuing into its modern present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. Obelisk at temple of Luxor , Egypt. c. 1200 BC Africa's written history starts with the rise of the Nubian and Egyptian civilizations in the 4th millennium BC, and in succeeding centuries follows the development of the many diverse societies beyond the Nile Valley . From an early date this has involved critical interactions with non-African civilizations. These ranged from the Phoenicians , who established the merchant empire of Carthage , to the Romans, who colonised all of North Africa in the first century BC. Christianity began its spread through large areas of North Africa at this time, reaching as far south as Kush and Ethiopia . In the late 7th century, North and East Africa were heavily influenced by the spread of Islam , which eventually led to the appearance of new cultures such as those of the Swahili people in East Africa, and powerful civilizations including the Songhai Empire in the Sub-Saharan west. Farther south, Ghana , Kanem-Bornu,the Oyo of the Yoruba cultures, Kingdom of the Kongo , and the Benin Empire developed with little influence from either Islam or Christianity. The rise of Islam led to an increase in the Arab slave trade that would culminate in the 19th century. This presaged the forced transport of African people and cultures to the New World in the Atlantic slave trade , and the beginning of the European scramble for Africa . The colonial period in much of Africa lasted from the late 1800s until the advent of African independence movements in 1951, when Libya became the first former colony to become independent. However Liberia can be
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considered the first post-colonial independent country, established 1847. Modern African history has been rife with revolutions as well as the growth of modern African economies and democratization across the continent. The History of Africa has been a challenge for researchers in the field of African studies due to the scarcity of written sources in large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa . Scholarly techniques such as the recording of oral history , historical linguistics , archeology and genetics have been crucial. Contents [ hide ] 1 Prehistory o 1.1 Paleolithic o 1.2 Emergence of agriculture o 1.3 Metallurgy 2 Antiquity o 2.1 Egypt o 2.2 Nubia o 2.3 Aksum o 2.4 Bantu expansion 2.4.1 Central Africa 2.4.2 Southern Africa 3 Antiquity o 3.1 North Africa o 3.2 Horn of Africa o 3.3 East Africa 4 7th to 16th century o 4.1 North and east Africa o 4.2 West Africa 5 European exploration o 5.1 The slave trade 6 European conquest o 6.1 19th-century European explorers o 6.2 Partition among European powers o 6.3 Berlin Conference
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7 20th century: 1900-1945 o 7.1 The early 20th century o 7.2 Interbellum 8 The postcolonial era: 1945 to 1993 o 8.1 Decolonization o 8.2 East Africa
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course AFRS 105B at San Jose State University .

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History of africa - The History of Africa commences with the first emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa continuing into its modern present as a

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