mtDNA - mtDNa can be used to trace ancestry Haplogroups...

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DNA studies Applications in archaeology
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DNA Genetic material contained in  chromosomes Genes are segments of chromosomes Most DNA is nuclear DNA (found in  nucleus of cells) DNA contains biological “blueprint” for all  individuals
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Humans have about 50,000 genes Modern challenge I sin harvesting ancient  DNA and investigating fragmentary  genetic material
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genes Determine traits both seen and unseen:  blood type, hair color, taste, hair textures,  skin tones, hormones, disease. ..
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Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA is found in the mitochondria of  cells mtDNA does not degrade as easily as  nuclear DNA and there are thousands of  copies instead of only 2 
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MtDNA Passed from mothers  to daughters sons inherit mtDNA  from mothers but do  not pass it on Far fewer  chromosomes and  much less genetic  material than DNA
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Unformatted text preview: mtDNa can be used to trace ancestry Haplogroups Genetic lineages defined by similar genes at a specific locus on a chromosome Haplogroups are compared to mtDNA Only five haplogroups found in Americas: A,B,C,D, and X In archaeology Ancient human lineages Ancient human migrations Relationships between groups For in depth study of Neanderthal http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/neandertha ls/mtdna.html DNA from mummies Care in collecting samples to avoid contamination. DNA from 14,000 year old coprolite Recent research indicates modern humans contain 6% Neanderthal DNA Suggestion is interbreeding at least 40,000 years ago. Does not rule out interbreeding even earlier, around 100,000 years ago. Raises suggestion of Homo sapien /Home erectus interbreeding....
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mtDNA - mtDNa can be used to trace ancestry Haplogroups...

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