03-04-10 - COMM 40 Thursday, March 4 Agenda Check-in...

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COMM 40 Thursday, March 4
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Agenda Check-in Current Event Presentation by Jian Reasoning Debate Brief Debate 1 Schedule Looking Ahead
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Reasoning Classical (formal) Structure Toulmin’s 6 Elements of any Whole Argument Tests of Reasoning Fallacies
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Classical (formal) Structure Deductive in nature Conclusion necessarily follows from the premises Conclusion contains no information not already present (at least implicitly) in the premises Based on almost mathematical rules to determine true or false The basic unit of reasoning in formal argument = Syllogism Enthymeme
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Syllogisms Categorical Syllogism: statements that relate categories to other categories All men are mortals. (major premise) Socrates is a man. (minor premise) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion) Conditional Syllogism: “if-then” statements If I wash my car today (antecedent), Then it will rain (consequent) I washed my car today; therefore, it is raining. (conclusion)
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Syllogisms (cont.) Enthymeme: truncated syllogism with unstated premise HPV vaccine will lead to teenagers having sex (major premise) Therefore, the HPV vaccine is bad (conclusion)
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Formal Structure flaws Very seldom does one actually reason in syllogistic form Most argumentation is not represented by a form in which the conclusion contains no new information Most human decisions are based on more practical reasoning, so it’s not about true or false, but rather if something is strong or weak (probable/improbable)
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Toulmin’s 6 Elements 1. Claim: the conclusion** 2. Grounds: evidence or reasoning to establish foundation for the claim**
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course COMM 40 at San Jose State University .

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03-04-10 - COMM 40 Thursday, March 4 Agenda Check-in...

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