Explorations-An-OpenInvitationToBiologicalAnthropology-Complete-2.pdf - EXPLORATIONS AN OPEN INVITATION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Editors Beth Shook

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Unformatted text preview: . . EXPLORATIONS: AN OPEN INVITATION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Editors: Beth Shook, Katie Nelson, Kelsie Aguilera and Lara Braff American Anthropological Association Arlington, VA 2019 CC BY-NC 4.0 International, except where otherwise noted ISBN – 978-1-931303-63-7 Contents Preface vi Part I. Main Body 1. Introduction to Biological Anthropology 2 2. Evolution 29 3. Molecular Biology and Genetics 58 4. Forces of Evolution 109 5. Meet the Living Primates 148 6. Primate Ecology and Behavior 190 7. Understanding the Fossil Context 233 8. Primate Evolution 274 9. Early Hominins 319 10. Early Members of the Genus Homo 376 11. Archaic Homo 405 12. Modern Homo sapiens 446 13. Race and Human Variation 491 14. Human Variation: An Adaptive Significance Approach 518 15. Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology 548 16. Contemporary Topics: Human Biology and Health 582 Part II. Appendices 17. Osteology 625 18. Primate Conservation 667 19. Human Behavioral Ecology 697 Preface Welcome to Explorations: An Open Invitation to Biological Anthropology. We (the editors) joined together in 2017 to create this dynamic and comprehensive Open Educational Resource (OER) for biological anthropology. We were motivated by the lack of existing OER in this subdiscipline and by a desire to save our students money on textbooks. We were also inspired by the recent success of Perspectives: An Open Invitation to Cultural Anthropology and supported by the editors of Perspectives and by the Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges (SACC), a section of the American Anthropological Association that consists of higher-education instructors who promote teaching excellence in anthropology. Together, the four editors bring to this project decades of experience in the classroom and a commitment to creating a resource that speaks to our students, sparking their interest in scientific inquiry and anthropological discoveries. This project is also grounded in the wider OER movement that emerged as a response to the skyrocketing costs of traditional textbooks. These costs, along with increased tuition, create serious barriers to student learning and success, especially for students dealing with financial constraints. As anthropologists concerned with social equity, we find that OER can begin to level the playing field within academia by enabling all students, regardless of socioeconomic status, to access materials they need to succeed in their courses. Global Open Educational Resources Logo by Jonathasmello is used under a CC BY 3.0 License. An OER for YOU Students: This textbook has been created with you and your success in mind. The editors and authors are experienced instructors who hope to engage your curiosity and questions about humankind. It is available to you for FREE! Instructors: We commend you for making the inspired choice to adopt this textbook written, reviewed, and edited by anthropology instructors. Like other OER, Explorations offers you the academic freedom to align course materials with your own pedagogy, course content, and areas of expertise. Rather than conform your course to the chapters of a conventional textbook, you are free to modify, supplement, or add to this textbook. This is why we chose to publish Explorations with a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which allows anyone to remix, adapt, transform, and build upon the contents. In other words, you can use this book as it is or alter it by reorganizing, omitting chapters or sections of chapters, assigning only some chapters, or curating chapter selections. The only requirement is that you credit the authors and source, specify the license, and indicate any changes made. In the spirit of open education, this textbook and the content within cannot be used for commercial purposes. We view Explorations as a dynamic text: we encourage your contributions on an ongoing basis. You may contribute by simply spreading the word! This textbook started as a grassroots endeavor that gained momentum by virtue of support from our professional communities, colleagues, and students. You may also contribute substantially by providing feedback, corrections, updated information, or additional research via the form on our website or by sending an email to [email protected] We recognize that biological anthropology is ever-evolving as new discoveries challenge prior understandings to extend knowledge of our species. vi | Preface Explorations: Mission and Organization Mission Statement: To provide a high-quality introductory biological anthropology textbook that is readable, engaging, and accessible to all students. With chapters written by experienced instructors and subject area specialists, this textbook addresses the question of what it means to be human by exploring the origins, evolution, and diversification of primates, especially that of our species, Homo sapiens. Anthropology is the study of humanity, in all its biological and cultural aspects, past and present. It is a four-field discipline comprised of biological anthropology, cultural anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology. The focus of this book is biological anthropology, which explores who we are from biological, evolutionary, and adaptive perspectives. We lay the foundation for this inquiry in the first four chapters by introducing the discipline of anthropology, evolutionary theory, molecular biology and genetics, and the forces of evolution. Chapters 5–8 consider evolutionary, biological, and social aspects of our closest living relatives, nonhuman primates, with whom we share millions of years of evolution. We also learn about how fossils provide material insight into our past. Chapters 9–12 describe prior hominin species and the emergence of Homo sapiens, us! Finally, the last four chapters (Chapters 13–16) explore human biological variation and the concept of race, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology, and human biology and health in the past and present. We include further readings on osteology (Appendix A), primate conservation (Appendix B), and human behavioral ecology (Appendix C). To guide your reading, each chapter begins with learning objectives and ends with review questions and a list of key terms. Acknowledgments This book is for our students, past, present, and future, who inspire us to be better educators and better anthropologists. The editors met through the Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges (SACC), which provided, and continues to provide, the collegial context in which this textbook emerged. We thank SACC for its support and seed money to begin this project. We appreciate the American Anthropological Association (AAA) for housing our book on their website, providing our ISBN, and publishing printed copies of this book at low cost. We thank the University of Hawai’i OER initiative for providing access to Pressbooks, the formatting software we used for this project. We also thank the editors of Perspectives: Nina Brown, Laura Tubelle de Gonzalez, and Thomas McIlwraith for their guidance and encouragement. We are grateful for grants we received to finance this project. The Minnesota State Innovation Grant enabled us to hire professional copy editors and illustrators to ensure a professional product. We appreciate the support and guidance from Stephen Kelly, Minnesota State Open Education and Innovation Program Coordinator. The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges- OER Initiative (ASCCC-OERI) funded the development of our ancillary materials (lecture slides and test banks) to enhance this textbook (see Teaching Resources on our website). Finally, this book would not be possible without the outstanding voluntary efforts of our 41 authors and 49 reviewers. Thank you! Preface | vii With appreciation, Beth, Katie, Kelsie, and Lara REVIEWERS Jessica Amato, Napa Valley College Lindsay Barone, DNA Learning Center Lisa Becker James Bindon, The University of Alabama Samantha Blatt Nina Brown, The Community College of Baltimore County Jennifer Byrnes, University of Hawai’i – West O’ahu Keith Chan, Grossmont College Shannon Clinkinbeard Victoria Clow Katherine Fernandez Monique Fortunato Davette Gadison, Tulane University Sydney Garcia Justin Garcia, Millersville University of Pennsylvania Kimberly Garza, Rebecca Gilmour, McMaster University Laura Tubelle de Gonzalez, Miramar College Kaitlin Hakanson, Klamath Community College Carol Hayman, Austin Community College Barbara Hewitt Maureen Hickey, Los Angeles Mission College Angela Jenks, University of California, Irvine Alexandra Klales, Washburn University viii | Preface Winsome Lee Chris Maier, Eckerd College Katherine McElvaney, University of Houston Tad McIlwraith, University of Guelph Cara Monroe, Matthew O’Brien Kathryn Olszowy Carolyn Orbann, University of Missouri Tanusree Pandit Amanda Paskey, Cosumnes River College Betsy Adams Rich Benjamin Schaefer, Georgia State University Arnie Schoenberg, San Diego City College Laure Spake Jay VanderVeen, Indiana University South Bend Marco Vidal Cordasco, Sandra Wheeler, University of Central Florida Kyleb Wild, Grossmont College Marlo Willows, Palomar College Kristin Wilson Katrina Worley, American River College Heather Worne, University of Kentucky Bonnie Yoshida-Levine, Grossmont College Aaron Young Melissa Zolnierz, Kansas City University ILLUSTRATOR Mary Nelson Preface | ix COVER ART Stewart Williams CARTOGRAPHY Elyssa Ebding and Geo Place, California State University, Chico COPYEDITORS Annik Babinski Laura Carney Mayumi Shimose Poe x | Preface PART I MAIN BODY Main Body | 1 1. Introduction to Biological Anthropology Katie Nelson, Ph.D., Inver Hills Community College Lara Braff, Ph.D., Grossmont College Beth Shook, Ph.D., California State University, Chico Kelsie Aguilera, M.A., Leeward Community College Learning Objectives • Define anthropology and the main anthropological approaches • Describe the origins and early development of anthropology • Identify the four subdisciplines of anthropology and specify the focus of each one • Define biological anthropology, describe its key questions, and identify major subfields • Explain key components of the scientific method • Differentiate between hypotheses, theories, and laws • Differentiate science from other ways of knowing The first time one of the authors [Katie Nelson] heard of biological anthropology, she was a first-year college student at Macalester College in Saint Paul, Minnesota, taking her first-ever anthropology course. Before she enrolled in the class she didn’t really know what anthropology meant. She knew it had something to do with people, but didn’t know how it all fit together. The course description appealed to her, so she signed up. She quickly learned that anthropology was the study of humans and that it was an incredibly broad discipline that included explorations of cultural diversity, human origins, past human societies, and human languages, among a great many other subjects. She had always been interested in learning about people. She enjoyed observing the different ways people interacted in public spaces, like the mall or the zoo. She enjoyed learning Spanish in high school and loved listening to how people who spoke different languages produced different sounds. She was curious about how people inherited unique characteristics from their parents and was especially intrigued by immigration and migration and what caused people to uproot themselves and move to another part of the world. During the second week of class she began to learn about biological anthropology and some of the leading theories for how and why ancient humans left Africa and migrated throughout the world. As she sat in class, she vividly remembers imagining a small group of ancient humans walking barefoot together through the African savannah. She imagined what they wore, what their language sounded like, how they held hands, how they shared food, and so on. She wondered why they were migrating and what they would miss about their homeland. She was hooked on anthropology! WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? Why are people so diverse? Some people live in the frigid Arctic tundra, others in the arid deserts of sub-Saharan Africa, and still others in the dense forests of Papua New Guinea. Human beings speak more than 6,000 distinct languages. Some people are barely five feet tall while others stoop to fit through a standard door frame. In some places, 2 | Introduction to Biological Anthropology people generally have very dark skin, in other places, people are generally pale. In some societies, eating pig is strictly prohibited; in others, pork is a rather ordinary food. What makes people differ from one another? What do we all share in common? How are humans different from other primates? How have primates adapted to different places? How and why did humans develop in the first place? These are some of the questions anthropologists try to answer. Derived from Greek, the word “anthropos” means “human” and “logy” refers to the “study of.” Therefore anthropology, by definition, is the study of humans. Anthropologists are not the only scholars to focus on the human condition; biologists, sociologists, psychologists, and others also examine human nature and societies. However, anthropologists uniquely draw on four key approaches to do their research: holism, comparison, dynamism, and fieldwork. Anthropology is an incredibly broad and dynamic discipline. It studies humanity by exploring our past and our present and all of our biological and Figure 1.1 Despite the many evident differences among people, humans are among the most genetically similar species. “Smiling Blonde Girl from Russia” by Egor Gribanov is licensed under CC BY 2.0 cultural complexity. Holism Anthropologists are interested in the whole of humanity, in how various aspects of biological or cultural life intersect. One cannot fully understand what it means to be human by studying a single aspect of our complex bodies or societies. By using a holistic approach, anthropologists ask how different aspects interact with and influence one another. For example, a biological anthropologist studying monkeys in South America might consider the species’ physical adaptations, foraging patterns, ecological conditions, and interactions with humans in order to answer questions about their social behaviors. By understanding how nonhuman primates behave, we discover more about ourselves: after all, as you will learn in this book, humans are primates! A cultural anthropologist studying marriage in a small village in India might consider local gender norms, existing family networks, laws regarding marriage, religious rules, and economic requisites in order to understand the particular meanings of marriage in that context. By using a holistic approach, anthropologists appreciate the complexity of any biological, social, or cultural phenomenon. As we will discuss in more detail, anthropology itself is a holistic discipline, comprised (in the United States) of four major areas of study called subdisciplines: cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and archaeology. We need all four subdisciplines in order to understand the human experience, which involves culture, language, and biological and social adaptations, as well as our history, evolution, and relationship to our closest living relatives: nonhuman primates. Comparison Anthropology is a comparative discipline: anthropologists compare and contrast data Figure 1.2 By using a holistic approach, anthropologists learn how different aspects of humanity interact with and influence one another. in order to understand what all humans have in common, how we differ, and how we have changed over time. The comparative approach can be historical: How do humans today differ from ancient Homo sapiens? How has Egyptian society changed since the building of the great pyramids? How is the English language adapting to Introduction to Biological Anthropology | 3 new modes of communication like smartphones? The comparative approach is also applied to sociocultural phenomena. We can compare the roles of men and women in different societies or different religious traditions within a given society. Some anthropologists compare different primate species, investigating traits shared by all primates (including humans!) or identifying traits that distinguish one primate group from another. Unlike some other disciplines that also use comparative approaches, anthropologists do not just consider our own species or society. Our comparisons span societies, cultures, time, place, and species. Dynamism Humans are one of the most dynamic species. Our ability to change, both biologically and culturally, has enabled us to persist over the course of millions of years, and to thrive in many different environments. Depending on their research focus, anthropologists ask about all kinds of changes: short-term or long-term, temporary or permanent, cultural or biological. For example, a cultural anthropologist might look at how people in a relatively isolated society change in the context of globalization, the process of interaction and interdependence among different nations and cultures of the world. A linguistic anthropologist might ask how a new form of language, like Spanglish, emerges. An archaeologist might ask how climate change influenced the emergence of agriculture. A biological anthropologist might consider how diseases affecting our ancestors led to changes in their bodies. All these examples highlight the dynamic nature of human bodies and societies. While we differ from our ancestors who lived hundreds of thousands of years ago, we share with them this capacity for change. Fieldwork Throughout this book, you will read examples of anthropological research that will take you around the world. Anthropologists do not only work in laboratories, libraries, or offices. To collect data, they go to where their data lives, whether it is a city, village, cave, tropical forest, or desert. At their field sites, anthropologists collect data which, depending on subdiscipline, may be interviews with local peoples, examples of language in use, skeletal remains, or human cultural remains like potsherds or stone tools. While anthropologists ask an array of questions and use diverse methods to answer their research questions, they share this commitment to conducting their research out of their offices and in the field. A Brief History of Anthropology Imagine only interacting with people who looked, spoke, and acted like you. Now, how would you begin to understand a seemingly new group of people? As people first began to explore the world, they grappled with how to make sense of human differences. Many were adventurers, missionaries, or traders, motivated by a desire to explore, spread their religion, or acquire wealth. All of them were familiar with only one way of life—their own. It was, therefore, through the lens of their own culture that they viewed people they met during their travels. 4 | Introduction to Biological Anthropology Figure 1.3 Anthropologist Katie Nelson conducting fieldwork among undocumented Mexican immigrant college students. One of the first examples of someone who attempted to systematically study and document cultural differences among different peoples is Zhang Qian (Chang Ch’ien 164 BC – 113 BC). Born in the second century BCE in Hanzhong, China, Zhang was a military officer who was assigned by Emperor Wu of Han to travel through Central Asia, going as far as what is today Uzbekistan. He spent more than 25 years traveling and recording his observations of the peoples and cultures of Central Asia (Wood 2004). The Emperor used this information to establish new relationships and cultural connections with China’s neighbors to the West. Zhang discovered many of the trade routes used in the Silk Roa...
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