ch2 - Silberschatz Galvin and Gagne ©2007 Operating System...

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Unformatted text preview: Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2007 Operating System Concepts with Java – 7 th Edition, Nov 15, 2006 Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2007 Operating System Concepts with Java – 7 th Edition, Nov 15, 2006 Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures ¡ Operating System Services ¡ User Operating System Interface ¡ System Calls ¡ Types of System Calls ¡ System Programs ¡ Operating System Design and Implementation ¡ Operating System Structure ¡ Virtual Machines ¡ Operating System Generation ¡ System Boot 2.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2007 Operating System Concepts with Java – 7 th Edition, Nov 15, 2006 Objectives ¡ To describe the services an operating system provides to users, processes, and other systems ¡ To discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system ¡ To explain how operating systems are installed and customized and how they boot 2.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2007 Operating System Concepts with Java – 7 th Edition, Nov 15, 2006 Operating System Services ¡ One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user: ¢ User interface - Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI) ¡ Varies between Command-Line (CLI), Graphics User Interface (GUI), Batch ¢ Program execution - The system must be able to load a program into memory and to run that program, end execution, either normally or abnormally (indicating error) ¢ I/O operations - A running program may require I/O, which may involve a file or an I/O device. ¢ File-system manipulation - The file system is of particular interest. Obviously, programs need to read and write files and directories, create and delete them, search them, list file Information, permission management. 2.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2007 Operating System Concepts with Java – 7 th Edition, Nov 15, 2006 Operating System Services (Cont.) ¡ One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user (Cont): ¢ Communications – Processes may exchange information, on the same computer or between computers over a network ¡ Communications may be via shared memory or through message passing (packets moved by the OS) ¢ Error detection – OS needs to be constantly aware of possible errors ¡ May occur in the CPU and memory hardware, in I/O devices, in user program ¡ For each type of error, OS should take the appropriate action to ensure correct and consistent computing ¡ Debugging facilities can greatly enhance the user’s and programmer’s abilities to efficiently use the system 2.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2007 Operating System Concepts with Java – 7 th Edition, Nov 15, 2006 Operating System Services (Cont.) ¡ Another set of OS functions exists for ensuring the efficient operation of the system itself via resource sharing ¢ Resource allocation - When multiple users or multiple jobs running concurrently, resources must be allocated to each of them ¡ Many types of resources - Some (such as CPU cycles, main memory,...
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ch2 - Silberschatz Galvin and Gagne ©2007 Operating System...

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