01introduction - Definition of Health Psychology...

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1 Introducing Health Psychology Definition of Health Psychology ± Health Psychology is devoted to understanding psychological influences on ± How people stay healthy ± Why people become ill ± How people respond when they do become ill Changing Field of Health ± Three major trends in the field of healthcare in the past century or so 1. Changing definition of health and changes in healthcare industry 2. Causes of death in society 3. Acceptance of a more biopsychosocial model to address these changes 1. Changing Definition of Health and Healthcare What is Health? ± Ancient Views ± Prehistoric Medicine ± Illness caused by evil spirits ± Trephination ± Demons and punishment by the gods cause illness ± Mind and body are same – fix the mind (soul) and you fix the body What is Health? ± The Renaissance ± Reemergence of scientific inquiry and medical study ± Mind–body dualism philosophical viewpoint that mind and body are separate entities that do not interact Theologians, priests, philosophers treat the mind Physicians heal the body
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Healthcare System ± By 19 th Century ± Society rural and agrarian ± Medicine not regulated ± Naturalists ± Homeopaths ± Midwives ± Physicians considered quacks, hospitals were dirty homeless shelters Healthcare System ± Industrial Revolution ± Urbanized ± Work away from home ± Away from family to take care of them ± Specialization ± No longer able to do many different things ± More accidents at work ± Rugged individualists became dependent on a system of people Healthcare System ± Early19 th century ± William Halstead had a crush on his chief surgical nurse who had sensitive hands ± This crush revolutionized the healthcare industry ± Lower rates of infection ± Medical profession became legitimate, licensed, regulated ± Public fear and suspicion of physicians reduced ² 1900: few hundred hospitals in US ² 1930: 7,000 What is Health? ± The Twentieth Century and the Dawn of a New Era ± Biomedical model — the idea that illness always has a physical cause ± Dominant view of twentieth-century medicine ± Embraces reductionism (complex phenomena derive ultimately from a single primary factor) ± Based on the Cartesian doctrine of mind–body dualism ± Health viewed as simply the absence of disease Healthcare System ± In 20 th Century, 3 Factors greatly increased cost of healthcare in the U.S. 1. Development of Blue Cross 1. Hospital debt 2. Teachers in TX 2. Discovery of antibiotics 3. Tax change that made health benefits tax deductible/extension of worker’s comp Healthcare System ± Healthcare system has continued to grow at an alarming rate ± Since 1970, healthcare has grown at 2 ½ times
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01introduction - Definition of Health Psychology...

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