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Exam 1 Study guide

Exam 1 Study guide - PART I The Nature and Physiology of...

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PART I: The Nature and Physiology of Stress Ch. 1: The Nature of Stress Key Points 0. Stress: working definition for this class: our response (physical, mental, and/or emotional) to our perceived inability to meet a perceived threat or demand 1. Cannon: fight-or-flight (know 4 stages), homeostasis 2. Selye’s GAS (know 3 stages and relationship to fight-or-flight) 3. Inverted-U theory ("Yerkes-Dodson principal") of optimal arousal level 4. Types of STRESS 5. Types of STRESSORS The Stress Response Walter Cannon developed 2 concepts: 0. Fight or flight (body prepares generally for both) 1. Homeostasis : A state of physiological equilibrium or balance that organisms constantly seek to maintain and reestablish; indicators include: 0. heart rate 1. blood pressure, 2. breathing rate (“ventilation”) 4 Stages in Fight-or-Flight Response a. Stimulus is received through one or more of the 5 senses and sent to brain b. Brain deciphers stimulus: threat/non-threat? Brain: “No threat”: end of response Brain: “Threat”: activates body for fight or flight c. Body stays activated until perception of threat is over d. Body returns to homeostasis Alternate Theory: Tend and Befriend 3. Shelley E. Taylor, et. al., University of California, Los Angeles 4. Taylor et al. contend that the female stress response is different than the male stress
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response because of the female's role in nature as the carrier of the offspring: 5. Cannot "fight or flee" as efficiently when they are pregnant or tending to young offspring 6. Alternative defense mechanism that has developed is the skill to tend and befriend . 6. Neuroendocrine evidence from animal and human studies suggests that this alternate response is physiologically based. Definitions and Models of Stress Hans Selye: Pioneer in Stress Research 0. Worked in 1950s-1970s 1. Selye’s work opened the door for stress-disease research in humans. 2. Selye’s definition: Stress = the body’s nonspecific response to any demand placed upon it to adapt, whether that demand produces pleasure or pain Other definitions/aspects/elements of stress: 3. Event or environmental stimulus that causes one to feel tense or aroused 4. Subjective, internal response to a demand 5. The body’s physical reaction to demand 6. Inability to cope with a perceived, imagined, or real threat to one’s physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual well-being
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Exam 1 Study guide - PART I The Nature and Physiology of...

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