Geol Research Paper - Prof. McMackin Geol 3 7 December,...

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Prof. McMackin Geol 3 7 December, 2006 El Nino Southern Oscillation Introduction The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the weather phenomenon that occurs between the atmosphere and the ocean in the Pacific region. The term El Nino refers to the Christ child because it normally occurs during Christmas time in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of South America. ENSO is the one of the most predictable events calculated by scientist, occurring every 3-8 years. The counter effects of El Nino has been known as La Nina (little girl) which have the opposite effects of an El Nino period. The effects of ENSO vary from period to period with some periods having major effects to some having fairly minimal effects. Despite the variation of strengths that ENSO has, the effects of it are worldwide. While some areas obtain long dry periods resulting in droughts others obtain vast amounts of rain fall that create major flooding. The first observations of the ENSO phenomenon were taken by a British Mathematician Sir Gilbert Walker who, after the monsoon rains failed to come in 1899, was asked to predict such weather vagaries. In his findings he was able to find a seesaw effect of atmospheric pressure between the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean, meaning that if the pressure was high in one region it was low in the other, and gave it the name Southern Oscillation. With Walker’s information scientist were able to gather further information to gain a better understanding of the ENSO phenomenon. Data and technology
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During Walker’s time of observations he did not have the adequate instruments and technology to gather the sufficient information to conclude exactly how El Nino was formed. Later a meteorologist by the name of Jacob Bjerknes, with the help of his father, realized that the circulation of wind, rain and weather were all a contribution between the sea and the air. Bjerknes’ father recognized the Pacific air circulation and called it the Walker Circulation. Based
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course GEOL 3 at San Jose State University .

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Geol Research Paper - Prof. McMackin Geol 3 7 December,...

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