PLAINS - Plains/Prairie Overview Players: I. Linguistic...

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Plains/Prairie Overview Players: I. Linguistic Groups: Uto-Aztecan (Numic), Aztec-Tanoan, Athabascan, Algonkian, Siouan Aztec-Tanoan Aztec-Tanoan-Kiowa Numic-Shoshoni, Comanche Athabascan/Dene
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Sarsi Southwest: Eastern Apache, Kiowa Apache Macro-Siouan Macro-Siouan: Wichita, Caddoan, Pawnee (descendants of original plains farmers) Siouan:Hidatsa (agricultural)-> Crow, Mandan Southern Siouan:Iowa, Missouri, Oto, Omaha, Osage, Kansa, Ponca, Quapaw, Winnebago Eastern Santee Dakota [Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Sisseton, and Wahpeton] Middle Nakota [Yankton, Yanktonai] Assiniboin Western Lakota/Teton [Brule, Oglala, Blackfoot, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Two Kettle, Hunkpapa] Algonkian Cheyenne (late prehistoric--Minnesota), Arapaho/Atsina (Gros Ventres), Blackfoot, Cree, Ojibwa (Saulteaux/ Bungi) II. Tribal Interrelations Alliances Cheyenne/ Arapaho Assiniboin/Cree/(French) Atsina/Arapaho/Blackfoot Sarsi/ Blackfoot Shoshoni/ Crow Kiowa/ Crow European vs: Comanche/ Kiowa/ Kiowa-Apache/ Cheyenne/ Arapaho Comanche/Kiowa/Shoshoni? Enmities: Ojibwa--Dakota Comanche--(except Shoshoni?, Kiowa) Kiowa-- Blackfoot Blackfoot--Crow Cheyenne--Dakota and Ojibwa, Assiniboine, Blackfoot III. Ecological Issues: 1. Medical Ecology a. host size--larger host size promotes more virulent strains in equilibrium b. equilibrium--host should not die off if long term relationship can survive, longer period of the relationship, less virulent the disease to that particular host
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(selected for by survival) c. contact frequency--note the impact of equestrian migration, annual gatherings, trading (note parallels in Pleistocene extinctions, modern pandemics) 2. Equestrian foraging: Horse/Bison Nomadism a. impact on population structure and growth--annual cycles and drift from farming b. bison converts inedible biomass as do cattle. Not suitable for agriculture until the steel plow b. bison key to survival, horse key to wealth, release from corral surround, key to gathering wealth c. Endemic warfare-role of population pressure, warfare both increases round-up horses and depletes competitors d. impact of nomadism on gender roles --cooperative domestic power of women
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PLAINS - Plains/Prairie Overview Players: I. Linguistic...

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