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Modernization of the Zhongguo Society

Modernization of the Zhongguo Society - THE MODERNIZATION...

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THE MODERNIZATION OF THE ZHONGGUO SOCIETY CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER UNDER QING RULE (1644-1912) MODERN SOCIAL ORDER (1900-1949) HISTORICAL CONTEXTS (1945-1949) MAOIST SOCIAL ORDER (1949-1976) POST-MAO SOCIAL ORDER (1976-2006)
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THE POLITICAL CULTURE QUESTION The Political Culture Question What is the best possible type of social class system that one can choose for the task of creating a good social order? The Political Culture Answer USA Social Order Confucianist Social Order Maoist Social Order Post-Mao Modern Social Order
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THE USA SOCIAL ORDER The Question What is the American social order? The Answer The Upper Class (the rich and powerful) The Bourgeoisie (Marxist term) The Middle Class (the managerial) No equivalent but closest The Petty Bourgeoisie The Lower Class (or Working Class) The Proletariat (Marxist term)
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CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER UNDER QING RULE (1644-1912) The Confucianist social order had remained unchanged since the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) The Manchu rulers simply replaced the Ming rulers when they proclaimed the creation of their new dynasty, the Qing Dynasty (Wade-Giles: Ching), thus, Ming Zhongguo became Qing Zhongguo. Thus, there was only a change of dynasty according to the political logic of “dynastic cycle” but no change in the Confucianist social order.
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THE CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER The “Four Class” Model The Class of Scholar-Officials The Class of Peasants The Class of Artisans The Class of Merchants
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THE CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER THE LANDED GENTRY Class of Scholar-Officials Social Role: Governing the State The Imperial Bureacracy
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THE CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER THE LANDED GENTRY Sources of Gentry Power Land Ownership (Class of Land Owners) Confucianist Education (Examination System) Quote: “While … the realm” [Grasso: 13.2]
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THE CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER THE LANDED GENTRY Sources of Gentry Power Two Characteristics Lowest degree holders responsible for local government [13.3] Non-inherited gentry status and membership [14.2]
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THE CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER THE PEASANTRY Numerical Superiority Peasant masses made up “80 and 90 percent of China’s population” [11.1] Social Role Created the agricultural economic foundation [11.1] Farming the land Feeding Zhongguo Building Zhonghua as laborers (without pay) Defending Zhonghua as soldiers
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THE CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER THE CLASS OF ARTISANS THE CLASS OF MERCHANTS The peasant character of the class of artisans The politically suppressed bourgeoisie Relative social mobility (two-way) THE DISFRANCHISED CLASS Soldiers, actors, prostitutes, and others
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THE CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER OVERVIEW OF THE CONFUCIANIST SOCIAL ORDER: A SOCIAL PYRAMID The Son of Heaven (Tianzi) The Imperial Bureaucracy The Landed Gentry The Peasantry All other social “classes” and “groups”
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