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Unformatted text preview: International Journal of Behavioral Development # 2003 The International Society for the 2003, 27 (6), 555–565 Study of Behavioural Development http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/01650254.html DOI: 10.1080/01650250344000217 Korean, Japanese, and US students’ judgments about peer exclusion: Evidence for diversity Yoonjung Park and Melanie Killen University of Maryland, College Park, USA David S. Crystal Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Hirozumi Watanabe Ehime University, Matsuyama, Japan Children and adolescents (4th-, 7th-, and 10th-graders) from Korea ( N ¼ 553) were surveyed regarding their evaluations of peer group exclusion of atypical peers: aggressive behaviour, unconventional appearance, acting like a clown, cross-gender behaviour, slow runner, and sad personality. The data were compared to a previously collected data set from Japan ( N ¼ 513), and the US ( N ¼ 542) using the identical assessment. It was hypothesised that differences between Korean and Japanese cultures would be found, which would support our proposal that Asian cultures should not be automatically grouped as one monolithic ‘‘collectivistic’’ culture. Further, it was expected that students’ judgments of exclusion, conformity, and self-perceived differences would vary by the context of exclusion in all three cultures as well as by age and gender of the participants. The results for the exclusion judgments confirmed our hypotheses regarding within-Asian cultural differences, and the findings for judgments about conformity and self-perceived differences provide a mixed picture of confirmation for our expectations. In general, the results support our theory of developmental social cognition in which multiple sources of influence have a significant effect on social decision-making involving the exclusion of others. Peer exclusion and peer rejection have been identified as pervasive aspects of children’s social lives (Bukowski & Sippola, 2001; Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 1998). Children experience exclusion for a wide range of reasons, and for some children, this has negative consequences for their healthy social development (Asher & Coie, 1990). Much of the research has focused on the individual social deficits that pertain to children who are ‘‘victims’’ or ‘‘victimisers’’, however, and very little research has been conducted on how children evaluate the bases for a group’s decision to exclude a peer. For example, when do children view peer exclusion as wrong and when do children view peer exclusion as legitimate? Over the past few years, research has shown that exclusion is a multifaceted phenomenon; children apply multiple forms of reasoning when evaluating exclusion (Killen, Lee-Kim, McGlothlin, & Stan- gor, 2002b). In some peer contexts, children view exclusion as wrong from a moral viewpoint, using reasons based on the unfairness that results to the excluded child. In other contexts, children evaluate exclusion as all right from a social group...
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