05healthcomprimising

05healthcomprimising - Dependence Substance Abuse...

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1 Substance Abuse Dependence ± Psychological vs. Physical Dependence ± Psychological dependence ± Use or desire to experience effects of drug to produce pleasure or avoid discomfort ± Seeking rewards ± Escaping or Avoiding Pain ± Both Dependence ± DSM diagnosis of Dependence A maladaptive pattern of substance use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the following , occurring at any time in the same 12-month period: (1) tolerance , as defined by either of the following: (a) a need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve Intoxication or desired effect (b) markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance (2) withdrawal , as manifested by either of the following: (a) the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the [specific] substance (b) the same (or a closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms (3) the substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended Dependence (4) there is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use (5) a great deal of time is spent to obtain the substance (e.g., visiting multiple doctors or driving long distances), use the substance (e.g., chain-smoking), or recover from its effects (6) important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use (7) the substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance e.g., current cocaine use despite recognition of cocaine-induced depression, or continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption)
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05healthcomprimising - Dependence Substance Abuse...

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