Aristotle Physics Chapter 4 Chance

Aristotle Physics Chapter 4 Chance - Aristotle Physics...

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Aristotle   Physics  Chapter 3  Cause What sorts of causes are there, and how many? We only know things when we understand why? We need to know this about things coming to being and passing away, and all natural change.
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One “cause” is that out of which something comes into being, and which is still present in that thing, for example bronze in a statue. Another “cause” is the form or pattern, which is found in a formula or definition. Another “cause” is that beginning from which the first beginning of change or rest is: for example the legislator is the cause of laws. Another “cause” is the end, that for the sake of which. We walk for our health.
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Causes are also as many things as are between mover or something else and the end. Drugs may be the cause of health.
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Chance and Fortune
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Aristotle   Physics  Chapter 4   Chance Many things are said to come to be by fortune or chance. Some people say that nothing comes about through fortune: everything has a definite cause. Say that you come “by fortune” into the marketplace and catch up with someone you wanted to find: they say the cause [of finding him] is wanting to go to the market.
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Nemesis & Tyche, Athenian amphora C5th B.C., Antikensammlung, Berlin
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Leucippus [atomist] "Nothing occurs at random, but everything for a reason and by necessity".
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Tyche and Ploutos Roman
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None of the ancient [pre-Socratic] philosophers spoke of fortune as a cause. But people do speak of things coming about through fortune, even knowing the above explanation. The early philosophers had to, therefore, mention it in some way. They surely did not see it as one of their other principles of change, for example friendship, strife, intellect, or fire.
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Empedocles for example speaks of air as falling out of the highest place by fortune. Some philosophers make chance responsible for the cosmos, even though they say animals and plants come about through nature or intellect. Others say that fortune is a cause, but it
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Aristotle Physics Chapter 4 Chance - Aristotle Physics...

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