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160 study guide exam 2

160 study guide exam 2 - Study Questions Unit Four Easter...

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Study Questions Unit Four: Easter Island What is the earliest evidence for human settlement in the Pacific? What are the Austronesian languages? -Languages of Polynesia, Micronesia, and parts of Melanesia. (classified as the Oceanic Language) Where are they believed to have originated? -The diversity of Formosan branch suggests Taiwan is the place of origin. How long did the process that dispersed the languages to their present locations last? -about 2000 years. Island hopped from Taiwan through Philippines and New Guinea, passed East through Fiji and from there to New Zealand Tahiti and Hawaii and Easter Island. What is the Laptia culture? - Lapita is the common name of an ancient Pacific Ocean archaeological culture which is believed by many archaeologists to be the common ancestor of several cultures in Polynesia, Micronesia, and some areas of Melanesia. What are its basic characteristics? -Bismark Archipelago and western Polynesia stamped pottery. Domesticated dogs, chickens, and pigs. Domesticated plants (taro, and bananas). Artificial islands (settlements with houses on stilts) What are the hypotheses for the origins of the Lapita culture? -Pottery not found in Melanesia before Lapita. (found in East Asia, Taiwan, and Philippines) -An ultimate Southeast Asian origin of the Lapita complex is assumed by most scholars, perhaps originating from the Austronesians in Taiwan or southern China some 5,000-6,000 years ago. This Neolithic dispersal was driven by a rapid population growth in east and southeast Asia (Formosa), and has often been called 'the express-train to Polynesia'. Burial pottery similar to "red slip" pottery of Taiwan, as well as detailed linguistic evidence seems to lend support to this theory. The orthodox view argued for by people like Roger Green and Peter Bellwood argues for a Triple-I model where Lapita arose from this Austronesian expansion through a process for intrusion into new territories, innovation of new technologies (such as the Outrigger Canoe), and integration with the existing populations. Direct links between Lapita and mainland Southeast Asia are still missing, due to a lack of data in Indonesia and Malaysia. Other scholars like J. Allen located the origin of the Lapita complex in the Bismarck Archipelago that was first colonized 30,000-35,000 BC. Others see obsidian trade as the motor of the spread of Lapita- elements in the western distribution area. -“Express Train model” Peter Bellwood -“Slow Boat”- Edward Terrell -Bismark archipelago indigenous inhabitants model –william meacham -South American origin model – Thor Heyerdahl
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What is the relationship between Lapita and the later Polynesian cultures? Neolithic cultures of South China seas. Hemuda culture (south china 5000bc) –Tapenkang culture( Taiwan 3000bc) What has genetic evidence shown about the origins of the modern Polynesians?
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160 study guide exam 2 - Study Questions Unit Four Easter...

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