Running head: EDUCATION Chapter Two: Literature Review Student’s Name Institution of Learning
EDUCATION 2 Chapter Two: Literature Review 2.1 Introduction The past few decades have witnessed an emergence of a clarion call to hold teachers accountable. In the spirit of this movement, nations including the United States have reviewed educational policies in a bid to formulate ‘new’ approaches to standardization and accountability in teaching. With the law now prompting all the states to hold teachers accountable and ensure that the quality of education keeps improving, the need to understand this push has never been more urgent. Basically, if the origin of a concept is only appreciated partially, it is virtually impossible to determine the effectiveness of the principle in terms of achieving proposed objectives and goals. Actually, any effort to evaluate a movement without first understanding what prompted its emergence can only result in error. In this light, the current chapter seeks to explore the historical origins of standardization and accountability in the context of education, the factors that led to stakeholders feeling that teachers need to be held accountable and the impacts of accountability on student achievement. Moreover, the chapter will explore the political contexts that have played an active role in the push towards accountability. In terms of accountable, this chapter considers mostly studies that have explored the impact of accountability policies pre and pro NCLB. The chapter considers both theoretical and empirical sources. In essence, this chapter identifies gaps and limitations in extant literature on the impact of accountability on student achievement. 2.2 Theoretical Review 2.2.1 Definition of Standardization and Accountability in teaching and learning Cramer et al. (2018) define standard as a value or a metric. Framed differently, a standard is the instrument used as an indicator of another. From this view, standardization is a process of
EDUCATION 3 determining what metric or value can serve as an indicator of another. In the context of education, standardization would, therefore, refers to the process of developing tests and assessments to show the extent of education content and quality a student has mastered. Traub and Canadian Education Association (1994) asserted that standardization connotes that the scores of all participants assessed can be compared one against the others. Building on this definition, they move further to observe that a standardized achievement test is one that is designed for an already established context and with the capacity to be delivered to the target group in the same way, scoring happening in the same way regardless of the place of issue, when or who is in charge, and provides the ability to compare the scores of each individual against the others, both individually and corporately. Ballard and Bates (2008) view standardized tests as norm-referenced tests designed to facilitate the comparison of individual scores to others at the same level. Similarly, Good (2008) standardized tests are administered in the same condition for
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- Fall '19
- No child left behind Act, Standardized test, NCLB, Educational years, Educational assessment and evaluation