Cultural caring

Cultural caring - t I l I i lr I h I i rl I clnly after a...

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Unformatted text preview: t I l, I i lr I. h I i rl I clnly after a substant;,'. : CARINGANI) HEALING FROM A CROSS-CULTI.]RAL PE,RSPECTI\rE in fact, recruiterl lr,-:rmediate and ettdtrt ::.. . brides through l)i(:L.t r States. 'fhis pattern .:: : en's domestit :tthit : . .... roles was also rnet. ::. ment o[p()\\el'lul r' ::.:' I hese interrral rrci,. : , t persist (L1'man 1!tlt' Throughout our writing so far, we have been asking what is happening to caring relationships in the contemporary United States and in industrial Euro-American society. The struggles and changes we have been noticing in families, in {iiendships, and in communities have consequences for our health and for our survival. The stakes are large enough to warrant a look at how the particular Western brand of relating interpersonally contrasts with that of other cultures, which view health, well-being, and survival in ways more closely related to their established patterns of supportive interpersonal ties. Of course, contemporary Western society includes a tremendous amount of internal cultural and ethnic diversity. With the exception of Native Americans, we have chosen not to focus upon these divergent subcultures. 'I'his decision was made because many of them reflect strong accommodations to the Western mainstream, for cultural traditions result from the gradual evolution of the human modalities for dealing r.r'ith a particular environmental reality. They also reflect accommodations to a minority status made necessary by restrictions set by a more powerful majority. Our understanding of the social networks found among minority cultures is enhanced by taking a cultural perspective. For example, consider the eff'ects of early immigration statutes restricting Asians from the United States, but 170 A sotnerr lt.rl d :: -: Rlack Americans. \1...:. woman fullr ottr.ll.ic i : work force. The 1,,'....- ' as service rtorket'r. .. .'could find no \\r)tk .:' three-generalir rtt.rl. :: ::. kin, that (,arol \t.r, k munities has a hi.i' :. , tradition. ltt eru'rlt.. group and the onrn:: :r' traditional cullttt.rl ; ,". nith basic exi:tctt, r . often discloqcs rr r' ,-( would imagine: bu:. : bit further lelttr'\r': :' -lhe illustrati,,r:. lornrs. The exrrrrrp.. seletted to sh'rr .r , 1.., dustrial one nith fc,'..: in the West.'l'lte..'., and Mennonite (,';r:' whose patterns of ir,:.:: assimilaticln. and t,, ::: vironmenis. Higlrl. among certain \1it..,. .i Coast Mirvok alrcl t:.,: ::.. . : These illttitr.,': :' lowed bv a disttt..t, : ,' the worth 9f ;111 glrlc: .been able lo ltt tttt....,identilied * ith .,,r :c" . ',: : lnq 'salBls patrrr-l )il SIJ{JJ Jtll JJpl:tl,r r ': -ue sI seJnlJnJ .\lr-tL)rrrr-i: l .rnO ',(tr-roleu 1n.;.r; r.., ,.: -uls lluourru r? ol slr( :.;l relnrrlred e qtr.\\ Eurlt:.1; ruo{ tlnsal suorllPPit .r -tuo)Je 8uo,r ts l)Jg: I ". 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'-ur ur pu€ satBts ter{,,\\ 3tr11.i r pauraluol surauud uoulurol aqr ,{1uo 8ur,rua1 'suraled Iernllnl leuoltlperl .(ueu ;o uortelrpeJa pre.trot qsnd .,(1-ra,rod go aruasa-rdruuro eqt pue dno-r8 IeJnllnl R .Io uorssaJddns ro uorssarddo aql 'sas€f aulaJlxe uJ 'uolllpeJl Ierntlnl luaraqur ,{ue aprstno ter{,rlatuos 3ur.{1 loor le)rrotsrq p seq sarlrunu -Luor IIEIg aruofur-Mol Lruroduratuor ur punoJ &tOt) IIEIS loreS teqt 'uDI a^rtfrJ pue lr?ar Surpnpur 'sorlrureJ petuunxop-el€ural 'leuolteraueli-aarqt ;o uratted rruqte eqt 'eruaH '(OgOt uo13ur,t6) IIe le {ro,rr ou puIJ plno:) uetu Ir€lg uaq,t\ uaUO 'uetuo,tr, IIEIS ot elqelre^e eJaM 'sla{Jo,tt afIAJes sE ro srrtsaruop su raqlra 'roqel pazru€Srouou 3o s8un-r tsa,l\ol aI{J 'elroJ Iro,\,l aqt Jo tno uatuoM atrqrt ,(ueu ldal -raleurauoq sB pardn:ro (11n3 ueuo,n E qtrm ,(11ue3 lpapl aqt lrrdap ot suoJJa tueartsul€I [ 'suurlretuv Irplg Jo slro.lrtau aqt palraJJz uorlrsodur lernllnl luereJlrp luqme{xos V '(Of Ot rretu,{1) lsrsrad ol papuel eAEq sarlrunruuro) uBfr-reuv-esaulq3 uI sIJo,\{lau luuJelul aseqJ 'suorllunJ Surleqarer ,{ueur rog suorleztue8ro ,{ltunutuor lngra.ttod Jo luau -do1a,rap aql qtrm 'sarlluntutuoJ uurlJetuv-asaulqJ ut 'latu osl€ s€,4{ seloJ SurIela-rer Iauorlrp€Jl ur uauroMJo afuasqe aqJ'a)uaIAJasqns fllsaurop s,ue -uro.n Surpre8ar uorlrpert I€rntlnr e pelu€qua ,{1ure1rar urattud sIqJ. 'salets petlul-l aql otur saprrq arntrtd rreqt pauodrul uaqt 'sarntrtd q8norqr saplrq tralas ot alqe are.4{. uaur asauedef auog 'slloJJe Suunpua pup arelpatu -rur r{loq peq eru€ieqrul xas fiurtlnsa-r eI{J 'elrq alras ol petlnrler rlruJ ul 'panrurrad uaaq Lpearle p€q uatu u€IsV Jo raqunu Ieltuetsqns e rar;e .{1uo TLI lAIJ'JEdSUTd -IVU N,L-IN ]-SSOd] V T Y t72 -I'HI, HE,AI,IN(; WEB housing, health care, or amusement. But people are not merely problems. Care for people constitutes something more than management of their needs. It also means recognizing their contribution to our values. A crosscultural example of the elder's role helps make this point clear. The chapter goes on to examine health care as one type of supportive concern. Its methods. evelt its purposes, differ greatlv. 'I'he illustrations suggest approaches for meeting the health needs of the individual that are far more congruent to the person's beliefs and interpersonal role than methods of health care in the West. Finally, we review the chilling evidence that contemporary Western society has learned little from the successes of these alternative ways of organizing supportive ties among peoples. Even worse, we appear to be hellbent on eradicating such examples from the face of the earth. Such callousness will result in a loss to all of us. In presentins these contrasts, it is imperative to point out that the particular cultural aspects we have selected can only be fully appreciated in the context of their own surroundings. Transplanting one or another aspect of supportive caring that is different from modern Western examples does not mean the practice could be made to work here. Nor should the success of one set of practices in a culture blind us to difficulties of that culture in other areas of life. Still, if our goal is to learn about caring, an item our own culture frequently lacks, there is potential advantage in reviewing our own values by examining those of different cultures. CHANGE WITHOUT ALIENATION INJAPAN Much of the uprooting of traditional family and community ties in Europe and North America has been associated historically with the transition from a rural society to an industrial and urban society. The transition, occurring over one hundred years, was ajolt to the traditional patterns of social ties. In Japan, however, a predominantly rural nation changed to an urban, industrial one in less than three decades. The traditional, paternalistic arrangements between land owners and tenants was largely replaced by land reform. A rigid class system gave way to an open one, and the extended family dominated by the male line was, in a significant measure, replaced by the nuclear family. Meanwhile, large firms came to dominate the economic picture. These changes have produced a number of pressures acknowledged by the Japanese, but some of the differences with the West in accommodating the change are remarkable. The divorce rate has risen only slightly in Japan. Likewise, the crime rate has remained relatively low. During this period of migration to the cities, certain features of Japanese society have apparently served as buffers. Some of this buffering is due to Jo asuas E pue Sur8uolaq Jo asues € sJaJJo leqt Lueduor e olur uortfalas I€ntua^e suearu luapnls aql ol ssarfns 'aturt teqt te ,(trsranrun aqt q8norqt luaurarue^p€ Jo eurl J€all u eJnsse pue ualre8repuDl qrr.r uorlJales Ierlrur a{eu slooqfs (paleralacre) oTasntcsa euros 'afuellnupE JoJ suorleunuexe elrlr -taduror arrnbar slooqls Lrepuoras ua,rg 'dnor8 srqt urqlrm aprfrns Jo sater qBIq ul patJagal sr ler{l elu€lsrunf,Jrl aleunuoJun ue 'uorsuel snopueur -art rapun s-ra8euaal pue stuef,salope areld ,{eqa ,,'11aq uorteurrrrexa ,,,n4o31[ uaqzqs se asauedef ur ol paJJeJaJ aJ€ slsal aqJ .sarlrsJalrun eseql ol suorleu -lurpxe aluzJlua Suunp sJnflo 'uaql 'lurod Surpoap aqa 'l.1rsra,lrun snors -rtsard E ruo{ uortralas sapnlfur s.{e,up arnpacord aqt tnq 'suortupuollrluo -rer leuosrad,{q papre eq saturtatuos,(eu.{laoos asauedef ur uortralas 'urrJ ar{l ot uorlJalas srq uodn aJoJeraqt sr ueur L:e1es aterodror B Jo aJII aqt ur lurod lerrtul ar{J '.{rlu,(ol {Ea^{ Jo u8rs e sr rar{toue ot .{ued -ruoJ auo ruorg Sur8ueq) efurs 'aeuarradxa uo anlul a1ur1 sareld uorlerodror asauedef aqa 'Surueauap alrnb paraprsuof, sr ruroJ ,(ue ur ereJla.4\ afurs lueuodlur .{1-relnrrued sl ,{lFnras srqa 'asnods parrsap lg8lq e sr ra{rom uorlurodror perrulus aqt puu 'a,rrtlzruu aJntnJ srqt purJ uauom ,(uetr11 '.{lunras Jo aruernsse atelduor aql pu€ paper8 Jo tas B epnlJur tural-8uo1 eqt ra^o aruzruroJrad poo8 pue '.{urrJ eqt ot {tle.{ol ,,{rgolues roJ salltuefur tnq 'tsrr; te lsapou sr led aqa 'tuau,{oldure tsJrJ s,ueur aqr ,(y1err -d,{t 'tuaueturad sr uorterlr.JJu slqJ '{rom Jo areld rraqt ot uaru Jo uorturlrll€ aqt .{q parepro .{ytearS sr rqforuu tr\l ur 3ur,rr1 'stredratunof uratsalA rraqt Jo asoqt upr{l parapnll ssal pue snorrnxnl ssal ar€ seuoq ellts-asaueduf rraq.l '(1njaread pue ralnb) Dlnztqs sE spooqroqq8rau rraqt eqrnsap rqrotuul^I lo slueprser eqJ 'suortezrue8ro a8rel ur sraryom perrelps go dnor8 Surpuedxa 'a8re1 u 3o ,(pnts e Jo els aqt sem ter{t qrnqns o,{1oa ssell-eJppru E sr rqroru -etrq ',{lrpqrsuodsar ,{11urzg Jo uortrp€rt str uodn spl}nq ueduf urapo6 'u.\ro Jreql uo slBnpr^rpur Jo ueqt raqler rar{touu ot dnor8 auo tuor; suortrsuerl parapro Jo euo ueeq seq ,{trlrqou 3o ,{:otsrq aql 'uedef u1 '.{rapzrurol pue ,(11e,{o1 roy san8zal -lor Jo dno-r8 , e papr,rord ral,oldura .\{eu aql 'spueqsnq rraqt qtrm lua,u ,(lleuortrp€rt uauroM 'a8err;uu srq ur Surtsrsse rn Sur8uerru Jo tuatxe eqt ot ue.te 'uos prrr{t ro puores ar{l roJ l.lpuralud papr,rord oqm euo aql se.vr ra,{o1dua .\{eu aq-L ',{1n aqt ur aldoad 8unol. ar{t roJ areld e Sur8ueue uI Ietuatunrlsul s€,f\ '!srepla a8elF,r lErol eqt ro ',{IuzJ aql asnElaq palJoJ -urer se,\{ 8urles auoq aql 3o l.lrroqlne aqa 'lyue; tuo{ erueraJratur alnrl I{11.4\ elerol ,^.reu € ot rdupe o1 tnq a)roqr alDrl peq suos .ra8uno,{ aqt tnq 'sao -ua8;aua ur luasard s,(e.nye s€M auoq ,{1gruz3 er{J '{lle aql ur sdrqsarrluard -de luarled '3uo1 q8norqt .{e,u rreqt aIeru pue a1e-r8rur ot patradxe era^ suos raqto pue '.rraq rqt sam uos tsaplo aqr '.(luey aseuuduf eqt uJ 'aturt Jo qtr.4{ sarl a8essed eqt tnoqu a,rrtradsrad e ol satelar lr go rred pue ',{1rue3 aqt t74 -T'HE HF,ALIN(; WEI] security-qualities once associated rvith a large extended farnily and a successful family farm. Once students have been accepted into the university, remarkably few f'ailures or dropouts are reported. Competition there, as within the firm, is greatly reduced. A striking feature of competitive pressures for achievement in Western societies is that they create a sense of rivalry among people-between siblings, schoolmates, across generations, and with fellow workers. In Japan, this rivalry is definitely muted. Grades are unimportant, and the success of one family member is shared by all. Friends preserve a sense of loyalty; rivalry is reserved for strangers. In keeping with Japanese religious and philosophical th<-rught, success is not a sudden, drarnatic event, but evolves over a long period of time through discipline and patience. When people rnake the transition, whether to a large firm or to some smaller, usually more paternal enterprise, the tie with the initial family or clan is carefully preserved and serves as a backup security system. "fhere is, however, a great deal of security in this ferocious sense of loyaltv to the company and the feeling that one's advancement and successes are incontrovertibly tied to the well-being of one's group. The individual is eager tcr see the group change, accommodate, and succeed and is cautious about departing from its wishes. This sense of group loyalty has provided a remarkable buffer against the anomie of individuals, so common during rapid social change (Vogel 1968). Americans tend to confuse the Japanese sense of loyalty and group identification with an absence of individuality and lack of definition of self. Those more f'amiliar with Japanese culture find that the self concept is alive and well in Japan but that it has a different meaning. For the American, identity is obtained by creating a trail of individual attainments. For the Japanese, identity is within, to be found by discovering one's connection with other people. Hence, a role may have some highly individualistic components, but role dedication and loyalty are the normal forms of Japanese self-expression. T'he Japanese word "uchi" means house. It also means family or family circle. There is still more richness in the meaning, however, for it is used to mean a company or a group in which the spirit of family connection exists. The concept is highly important to our understanding of supportive ties. The more we look outside of the values of Euro-American culture, the more we see our own culture as the odd one, the one that places little basic value on our connections with others and focuses more concern upon ourselves" The American response to Japanese successes has been to look upon the Japanese firm as a set of techniques that, if competitively successful, can be taken over by American firms. If we copy Japanese techniques without the values, however, the experiment seems likely both to fail in this country and to endanger the concept's lastine value in Japan. Finally, it rvoulcl lrc , ... has cushioned the Incl .r.::.-, provided as secure .L r ..-: qtrite disadvanleqe(l i: 'r.'. themselves, and. br \\ r-1. :' and communin'roles. THEJEWISH F,\\{rL\ r Survival lake. ttt.,:.. : clf Eastern Ettrr,pe. II.r.r- . from Egvpt. The r'alk :: :: l thousand years for a Lrr. : .: land. Throughorrt thc . ., : nant with God so dct.,:.- . " was to learn all its te,rch.:-.:. sure of worldlv sttcces. elemerrts that strst.rirrc : . :'. T:.. embodied in the sl.rtctl T -of its host collntr\. Tl-.: : Crtrsades drore ., :' : Every aspect of i:i: .:The aspect of most c, ,r -.:: people to one altother T:: terminationS thr l' ', dest I, ,r c, - following the totttttr.,:. .:: beings. God forgire\ \:: \ -:people who do not 1(,:..'.: atone and seek tillgl\(' :" Smafter to earn one s L'-.... the concept of a "rtrt;.., the "mitzvas" \rere ( '' , i . -. '. o[trarrt1tri..". . ' discouraged. Rather'. r' :'- ' in direct repa) rnent. I .. : . ' joys and successes. The extended t.,:: whether it be rrrortct i : , relative might be otrl. :..:. was not one . The task of nrakr:-.= -: parenthood. lb thi. ct. i -- and sacrificing. P;rren:. ,:'. : o[ a special feelins , 'L ;. . . o1 uaaq seq sessaJlns asJuf. 'uedef ur enle.\ Frrnr': Ilp.J ot r{toq ,{1ay1 sruaas ru-r.r -qra1 asauedef ,{dor r\\ II i ,{1:,rrtrtaduror 3r'teqr sani',:' -eqreur E sE,{{ ,{trsoraua8 qlns 'patrauuol llalouar ,{yuo aq lq8rur e^ltBlar aqr qlinoqtle-leatu e ro 'a,rr1 o1 areld e ',fu.uop e -ro3 .,{auoru eq tr raqler{M liuraq tnoqlr,n a.rrli ot petradxa oslu sEM ,{11uq pepuetxa aqJ -palse 'sassaJfns pue s,{o[ s.reqto qree ur punoJ,{11ure; aqr (slo[1 saqyvu eq] ur tnq stuau.{edar trarrp ur tou 'a^ol I€tuar€d ;cl uorteco;dr:a; tuorJ etupl tr 'raqtu; 'pa8ernorsrp .{yuo sareld teqt euo aqt 'rrro pp, uJafuoJ aJoru sasn)oJ PrrE ! uBfrJaruv-oJng Jo senlP \ r-3o Surpuets"ropun Jno ot ruf ,{11ue.3 Jo tFlds er{t qrrq.u ir 'rana.noq 'Surueau eqt rir ), asauedef 3o sruJOJ leru-rr)'Lr : ,{Felnrrued lou pue luanbar; se,tr luatun8Je Jlurs '.(trlrnbuert Jo euo tou se,{\ auoq eqt Jo (aread) tuoleqs aqa '(rradsat) 'suata qqaup Jo 8ur1aa; leoads e go stuardlrar aram-sJaplo IIB osle tnq-relnrrt-red ur slua-red '8urrr;ures pue '8ur.(uo,lt '8ur1ol .{lluelsuor s€,{\ raqlou patqs aqt '.pua srqt oa 'pooqluared go luo8 lua;8 aql se,u s,uaf poo8 olur uarplrql Sunleur Jo Isul aqJ '8ur,rr1 ,{lrep q8norqr s8urssalq s,ouo urzo ot rJtJerus pue JeJes se.\{ tr 1nq 'sroqq8rau s.euo uro{ ssaualr8roy laas pus auolu ot sartrunuoddo yenlu aram areqJ -reqtou€ auo a,tr8ro; lou op oq,u, aldoad tsure8e surs a,rr8rog tou seop aH tnq 'pog lsure8u surs sa,lr8-ro; pog 's8uraq -ueJ suEetu osle ]J 'asnr )u ! .i ueunq Suorue sdrqsuortela; Surqursard sluaupuuunuol aqr 3ur.uo11o3 -ulol fIlsI[enpIAIpuI .\[qr:rq ! uollfauuof s,euo .HuLra.r,,..1 el{l Jod 'sluaurur€ltE [r]nlr:." 'uerrratuy aql JoC 'Srrrrrr:'-l J.\tJ€ sr lde:uor 11as JLI I t I" l : 'flas Jo uortrurlep Jo IJEI l,,L! dnor8 pue lt1e,(o1 Jo rsrrr: Sur"rnp uoruruof oS 'Slpl-r'-r: -Jr € pJpr^o,rd seq .ir1er,,; . lnoq€ snorlnEJ sr prr€ pfr ol lJ8cr sl lpnpr^rpul rrl L . -uo)ur aJE sassaf)ns prrE tu: aqt ot l1ye,(o1 'il 'sI eJaqI'urals,(s -ro Jo asurs slr, lluntas cir- lpuu3 Itsrtrur eql qlr\\ ir- auros ol Jcr ruJrJ a8:ey e or :: i 'aruarled pue arrrlcl: lnq ']ua^a lrteurErp 'uappi-. Lq ,{pulncrtred 'paurua ara,n .{aqt 'spremer lsnl s,pog ara.u ,,selztrlu,, eql q8noqa 'tsn[ pue poo8 qroq Suruadduq .{ue -ro ,,'€AZJrLrr,, e Jo tde]uol aql ur peurquror ara,u uorle8rlqo pue,{o[3o sppom aqJ ']eqtoue euo ot aldoad Jo sartllrqrsuodsa.r aqt qlr.{{ op o1 sBq araq sn ot urefuof tsolu lo lradse aq1 'sauouano snor8rlar ,(q parueque sB,\\ Ilatqs eqt ur aJII Jo lradse fua,rg 'lr pe.{orlsap suorlBurrrrrel -xe rzEN pue surer8od aqr plun pruMtsee sleprJur I€rol aqt e^orp sap€snr) aqt aturt oqt tuo{ patsrxa tr urqtr.l{ aJll Jo apou aqJ '.{;tunor tsoq str JO suorrlua eqt tuo{ pat€losr su.r Itatqs aqt ',(11errd,{1 'ltatqs eqt uI perpoque sP^\ teqt ,,a,u,, Jo asuas relnlrued e se,r puo)as aqJ 'sssrfns ,{1ppo.u, Jo arns -eeru Jaqlo Lue Surq8ra,rlno rEJ luaurur€ll€ ue 'sBurqreel slr IIe uJeal ol sem tueuro^erqre rseq8rq aqt teqt suortdrrlsard stl ur pelretap os po1t Vtlm tueu -elor € rq€roJ aqt sEM lsrrJ eqJ '.{1rluapr pue eJll peuretsns teqt stuauala o,nt sdeq-rad eram araqt rpu€q srqt 3o s8uuapuem rql rnoq8norql 'pue1 elrleu e JeAo uorurruop lnoqlr.u lsotule aldoad e ro; srea,{ puesnoql aarqt uuqt aroru pauueds parqs eql ot reurs'tt{ nro{ {lpM eqJ.'1d,{33 uro-lg snpoxa aqt pup uort€err Ielllqlq aqt ot sur8r-ro str selerl 'adornE uretsu1 Jo .,{trunururor qsr,r,ral- 'lletus aqt 'palqs aqJ 'sruroJ ,{ueu sa1el IE^r^rnS CNIUV] AIINNIAIhIOS ONV A-III^IV.{ HSI {TIEHI snorFrlal asauedef qlr.rr hrrr .Io asues e a,rrasard spuir,rl -lns aql pue'luelrodurrun r-e[ ul 'rirlro^ Mol[{ qu1. uJamtaq-rldoad Suoure r-l' -lsa^A ur luarue^erqfe .roJ !r_ sB 'rlaqt uortrtaduo3 E 'par.r '.{lrsranrun aqt olur peldarr': 'sa1or ,{lrunurtuol pue !se^lesruaql Ietrleru Jraqt ur passarddo uauo are 'spJppuets uretsag ,(q 'pue roJ uortrsod J€uortezru€8ro poo8 u ro3 tsanb eqt ur pa8etue,rpesrp atrnb Ilrls eJE ueuro^\ 3qJ 'uetuoM asauedef JOJ uorqsnl e eJnJes se papr,rord tou seq ueur esauedel',{ueur roJ uortnlo^ad lcutsnpul eql pruorqsnl spq leqt uort€rlrllE l€uortezruBSro aqr tEql atou ot esr.\\ aq plnoM 1r "{11eurg -rns pu€ {lt-ql paprral\r : 9Lt -JAIJ.lgdSlLq.I -IVdn.t.-In:)-SSOd I V t76 THE HEAI,IN(} WE,B nism for social justice within the family circle as well as being insurance, for who knew rvhen the giver might also be in need. The responsibilities of shtetl residents extended well beyond ties of kinship. The community was an extension of the family, and those from the same shtetl had a bond that persisted across the continents. Within the community, charity was an important part of the good deeds one collected in the eyes of God. Every celebration, from birth to death, was accompanied by a donation to the needy-placed in a tin box in every home. Even a poor person who lived on charity was oblised to give charity from that which was given. The style of giving was itself part of the "mitzva." The best gifts were given in ways delicately designed so that the self-esteem of the recipient would be carefully protected against feelings of weakness or subordination. We had a grocery store. . . . There were some poor Jews who used to come. We served them.just like the others but they did not have to pay. However, nobody was to see this and they were helped just like the other customers. Mother used to say that to be generous you had to have three things: one, the means to give; two, a kind heart; and three (most important), good sense (Zborowski and Herzog 1972:200). Milvoks, nho settlerl rvere orqanized irrt,r enr irons n ti:r r:. r11, :. . : ' . acorns into flour. trsirr: , ::. ith the qr t-\ : ' ' nere residents. sltar irr- ':., The Miwok clans-t-s;rl, :r tic groups, none of :... lived as neighb,rrs. e rri, : ' turbed for ten thousuncl '. :,,: with nature and rtitlr c, :. time than other hr,rnr.r:-. . placed one another..lnr :-.. i ' and declined. (livilizations canr{- rr t-,f thc earth trttlr t. . : r. Athens. and R,,nrr shores of' (.alil,,r rr r., : -' (Crouch I973 Parents taught charity by allowing their children to make gifts or donations to others, but responsible caring was not perpetuated by force of habit nor even an instilled sense of altruism. Under the covenant with God, people were interdependent. Not only did the acts of one person affect the fate of all, but each had need of the others. Those less privileged, therefore, depended upon those who had more for instruction or for material aid. T'hose more privileged, however, could only validate their spiritual identities by sharing their valuables with those who lacked. lnterdependence was recognized not only in charitable activities but in every aspect of human relations-the personal as well as the communal. The shtetl was part, albeit an aberrant part, of Western societv; yet, in this aberration, the homeland of the fiddler on the roof, a lesson about the human condition was preserved for centuries. The example did not inform the surrounding Western civilization, however; rather, the carriers of this tradition were, in large numbers, exterminated, leaving the more competitive, self-aggrandizing forms of Western culture one less reminder of ways in which human relationships can be embedded in more caring When the,i. .,:: sions behind the strcrr -:: : save their souls assured :i.. one hundred vears it \\.1: Little remains ln .i,- - -: bility that charactenzec ::,:.1 California coast \\'ere nr' .' -: lhe northern rr'uodl.rnc.: : similar interpersorr.r) p. , -. . :' , the Montagnais-\aska';'r. .,:. noted. "Strife is scarcelr '-:.,: even courteouslr rli.d.,::.harmony appears char:. :.:'. teaux. These Ojibr'l-.1 .,. ' perior and eke out an c\.i:r: Salteaux notice ? Ere rt :: , and self-control. Ther :,-... -- communities. AMERICAN INDIAN COMMUNITIES AT PEACE In the past, most Native Anrericans lived in clans, groups linked directly by a common lineage and recognized as an entity of lovalty. The other Indian tribes. .\n:' : . alent of "insanitr " { H.'-.: of murder, suicide i: ,:.rl expressions of anger. u:.,: physical assault. : . Father LeJeune. ; fc.- -aq .(lgedslp E pe^rasqo aruo ,fueuorssrur trnsaf z ,aunafal Jeqted 'tlnesse yurrs(qd Iunlre ol peal o1 1a:renb e JoJ arer llaurertxa sr tr pue ,ra8ue go suorssardxa uado ,nag aJE aJeqJ, 'aJeJ sr Ueqr pue ,u,lrou>1un sr aprJrns ,lepJntu Jo sprorer ou are araqt'xneatJus aqt qrllA .(146I ue8eg) ,,,(truesur,, Jo tual€ -.trnba rrtsrn8url aqt sr rE.\\ 'o8ede4 pateler aqr Suoury .seqrrt uerpuI raqto qtr.u Jo satrq,t\ qlrm taqtra 're,r,r le uaaq Janau a,teq .,{aqa .loJluoJ-Jles pue aq1 ',{t1e,{ol .Io ,{rnua uE s}: '- : -lp prlull sdnol8 'suelr ur I,: ttYfd ar Suuer aJo(u ur pappaqua f,iJepurural ssal 3uo SJnl{nJ u:i-: aJotu aqt fiur,real 'paleurur::-r. sJaIJlEf ar{l 'JaqlEJ :lJte.\\(}l 'tnoqe uossal e 'JooJ aqt uo j.': 'ta.{ :,{taoos urelsa6 Jo 'tlr,: .lf -. lou plp aldu-rexa aqJ 'saur-.r'-= _ .. ::-. - sPM u€unq go tradse Lra,ra ur rrurpuJdapratul pr:,1 ,,' ". 'aruarrud '.{uoureq 'rarq8nel 'uorreradoor Jo Ieap rear8 e alrlou xn€arl'S al{t Jo sra^rasqo 'liurqsrJ pue Surlunq ,{q arualsrxa u€ tno ala pue rortad -nS alBT Jo €are leraua8 eqt ur a,rr1 aldoad Surleads-e,nqrl61 asaql 'xneal -les aqt 'suer1uo81y Jo r{ruurq rar{toue Jo rrtsrratrereqr sreadde ,{uou;eq premtno etues aqJ '(fO:-Ogg:g96 1 padg) ,,paurepsrp ,{lsnoatrnor ua,ra uortrtaduror :papro^€ ,(lsnonuarts arualor^ .luasard ,{1er.rees sl eJIrtS,, .pelou 'ulnsuruad roperqe'I eqt ur toor{sJJo uer1uoS1y ue .rde1se51-sreu8uruotrAI aql Jo Je^Jesqo auo 'sluatuuorr^ua Jeqst€q prue aread leuos;adratur JEInurs e paur€tureur upeueS pue setets patrun eql Jo spuelpoo^l uraquou aql JO saqlrl uer1uo31y IEJeAas ta.{ '.rolreJ e ,{1ure1rac lsoru aJe,\\ lseof eruJoJrleJ aqt Jo ssauppru pue ,{1unoq ar{f 'eruatsrxe laqt pazrral)ureqe reqt .{rryrq aqt ureldxa ol aJll )to^\Itr^tr Jo stuno)re ur sureuer JInr-I -e1s lnJaread 'auoli se.n tr sree,{ parpunq auo urqlrm pue 'aJrl Jo ,(e,u uerpul aqt Jo rrorteJatrlqo eqt parnsse slnos rraqt aAES o1 t-rorJa snolEez eqJ 'ssorf aqt pup proMs aqt Jo qt8uarrs aql purqeq suors -srru a8rel otur suelpul eql pellerror laql 'pa,tu,re spreruedg aqt uaqM '(9161 qrnctr3) aqt tlaJJE uosrad auoJo strl- :-. 'poc qtr.4\ lueue^of aqt tapU.l Jo arJoJ,{q palenladrJd 1r,..: :r -op ro sgr8 aleru ot -rluapr lenlr,rrds rreqt JtEI)llI:'. 'pIE leIJelEuI IOJ Jo UOllltl_i-:-. '.aroJaraql 'pa8a1r.Lr,rd ssal rs - I uarpliu - tsoru asuas poo8 '(luztrodurr sareyd luarrue JJqto II€ pue 'uo1,{<1eg 'rarung ur Suroq olur aruel suollllzrplr,) s,tep rraqt.]o esrnol paqrntsrpun 'prrnsseru eqt lno pJ^rl eruroJtle3 Jo srlorls aqt liuo1e aldoad aqr lrts 'pasdellor pue per{sunou ,rsor eruod pue ,suaqtv 'aeuar,t11 ',{or1 ',(erep ual1o8ro3 pue tsnp otur aprrJ-r ot (1uo qtlee eql .IO eqt 'euo :s8urql aalqt a-\pq ( )t ::- 'sJJrrrolsnJ lJqto Jql J)lll .l.r. ::_ ta^e^{oH ',{ed or rluq tou Lrr: .- :r-- 'elxof ol pasn oqm smaf :o,,c : - . 'uollBulpJoqns a-ra.n slgrli tsaq 'pourllap pue lualdlfal eqt Jo ueetsJ-IIr: Jo sseulEa 1'. - i: j-eql ..'€.\zt1ii =, s€,4{ qrlqm t"qt urorJ .itrrrq. r'.-= rood e uaAI 'auoq.\rJ.\a ur \. .- patuedurorce se,n'qteap ' r. .-i,- - pJl.)elJoJ euo spJJp papumse suortezrlrlrr errtue raqto ,IoMltr,\tr eqt Suoure jaqtoue auo paceld -a"r ,{ltarnb suorleraua8 alrssJlrns ellq6 .srapro uuurnq leqto ueqt aturl raliucll e lol uraqt peurBtsns teqt le,u e ,raqro r{rea qtrm pue ernteu qtr,r 3unr1 3o ,{e,u u paratseu peq aldoad asaqJ 'sreal puesnoqt uat roJ paqrnt -rilpun pue InJaread 'qrrea rqt Jo itunoq aqt Fur,{olua ,sroqq8rau se pa^rl ,sdnor5 rrl .{aq;_ 'areg-ru,n ';o tdaruor u ro 'rog pro.^{ € peq qlrqm JO auou -srn8url tuaraJJrp era.\{-seurles pue 'roolretso3 ,uolesg-suel) IO^{rW eqJ ,sluaprsar ara,n ',l1.tiuueds os pasn ,(aqr quea aqt Jo .{rllelldsoq eqt Suuuqs uaql elrl pue 'asnou plarJ eqt pue ',{1zzu8 rql ,xoJ ,iar8 aqr qtr^\ suorrlua aleradual rraqt pareqs {aqa 's1oor a,,rrlrurrd ,{1uo Srrrsn ,rnou otur srrrole punorli pu€ qsr3lJaqs rq8nel ,{aq1 'sue1t pareltefs qlns otur pazruuS;o ara.u 'erulo.]rlu3 urrquou 3o slal;e,r ltslseor pue seroqs aqt paluas oqrlr .sIo,\\rry aql urqllla 'slueurluof Jrit !: : tuo{ asoqt pue ',{1rue; aq- Jo sall puo.{aq IIe^r papurr\r i. 'F':: .ro3 pooi : -- : 'aruernsur Suraq sp IIf,i.. jr r LLI {,\ll.:)1dsd3d tYH itJIi't:)-ssox:) v 178 THE HEALIN(I WEB tween the outrvard harmony among the Salteaux and an inner sense of malice. Anthropologist Irving Hallowell (195il) noted similar indications of ambivalence, citing the invocation of sorcery in their interpersonal lives. 'fhe pacific pattern, however, is the more obvious one. Several reasons fbr this harmony, cooperation, and tranquility have been tendered. The first is that hunting, fishing, and trapping provide a n.rodest existence with very little opportunity fbr storage of sr.rrplus. The sense of interdependence ref-lects a true condition of interdependence. With virtually ncl differences in affluence and no chance to save for a rainv day, the best strategy is to cooperate in the hunt and to share {bod. An equally compelling source of the harmonious, interpersonal life lies in the kinship system. Among the Salteaux, everyone with whom one has contact falls within the cateeory of a relative. Furthermore, by extension of a fer'r' primary terms, no linsuistic differentiation is made betn'een those r'vith blood ties and those whom we would regard as in-laws. Hence, open quarrels are tantamount to hostility among blood relatives. Such hostility does, of course, occur, but among the Salteaux solidarity is far more important. Cooperation and inhibition against openly expressed aggression is not onlv a socially approved ideal, but also but a pattern of living that seldom breaks down. To ward off hostile fbrces. the Salteaux maintain a sense of inner po\\'er, granted through the blessings of supernatural pou'ers. They believe that true po\{'er can allow itself to be tested. With confidence in one's polr,'ers, aggressive exploits are unnecessary, and the best defense is to avoid offense. Such behavior will lead to pimadaziwin, or life in the fullest. This value is far distant from the ideas of the white trappers, whose ancestors are more likely to be victims of type A behavior and have probablv never been able to share pimadazizuin. RESPECT FOR THE ELDERLY They are leli rritir t L .. . '- he leaders o[ ,t hc: I' ' concerns lclr a Lrctic: . : . His message rvas,i :. ply would be. '\\'e It.rr. I =,' not )'et wise. Think nr',: r : ' leave quietly ancl go , ,t-. : rnany Years. "\\'hr." he r,.,. agreement or resp()lllc: H but they knou their' \\ tri i ." . ln place. who can achieve are socially recognized, and the contributions of others, barely noticed. We have become a society in which major categories of people-the old, the disabled, the young, the unemployed-are viewed as problems rather than as people. A difTerent perspective about the contributicln of others can be found in societies out of this mainstream. The elderly in particular often have specially valued roles. We once had the opportunity to hear of a thirty-five-year-old Native American educational psychologist's travel through reservations in the Sorrthwest to discuss with tribal elders some of the serious problerns associated with Indian boarding schools. His message was straightfonvard. Your children go off to these schools. 'fheir native languages and culture are often not respected and the schools are inferior to the schools of white people. -l'hose Western society, status reflects individual success in the market- children to gro\v ttp itr .. respe( tcd." Olte tlrlttt,,' : '. : In Emrnr \\'ct ttt t . '" are ntade to tlre Ir rlc , r -r., Native American c()rrlrl- .:. grandmother is the .,,:'-.-i sponsible lor the .,,t i.,... .,' vided by p;randparent. i dren bclrn of unrt.ecl n'. -:.:: Arnerican communiti.i ::. ': elderly generations lLrji;..t -their children, erandc i'... :: = Margaret \lead l women could be sucl: : The pattern, houerct. :: litult work [o do. \r, r! x ered medicinal ancl ed::.: 'teepees, and carriecl ',..,: teens. found her lor,til-r: seriously encumbered t, ever. kttowin{ the r..rr of grandchildren and r': The Hopi of tl'ir : .^ r evervthing in life i,s p.r:: fbre, are linguisticallr '..: rrnderstood br t ellcr: r: . " "wave" is a norttr. but i. : watch the rvave tnke i whole. Hopi philos,,i,,:-.. rvhether or not their ch,,: in the Hopi vie*. is .rl',-. .aldoad etrquJo slooqrs Jqr ,,. JJE -uor Ieqrrt E sr sE 'Sururoraq 3o ssarord eqt ur s.{e.n1u sr '.lrar,t rdo11 aqt ur 'uosrad y 'alqezru5orar ,{yatzrparurur sr urroJ Sur8ueqr rraqt tou ro leqtJqM eJnllnf pue se8en.Srrel .....i Jql ur 'pre,\\ ogrqtireJts sp.\\ f, j- ; -osse sualqord snouas at1- ; su('rlB.\lJsJ.r qhrr,':.'SelO,l pJI'r':- a^rl€N p1o-rea{-a, r 'ureaJlsureru srql JO llt() sir.l lnoq€ elrlfedsrad tua:a11rp a-re-paloldurun Jql Fu: -a1er roluu r{Jrq,r ur .\tJr-r1 : suollnqllluol aql pue 'pJZ:'i:l -lJ{JRur eql ur ssaJJns J}]l-.: MeJ p Jo uorsuelxa lfeluof ra,rau ,{lqeqord a,req puu -i, srolsaJue asoq,\\ 'sraddelt r. sIq-L 'tsellnJ eqt ur aJrl .r(, . pro^€ ol sr asua.'ap tsJq rij. -,nod s,auo ur afuaprJuol -r;-.. alarlaq,(aqa's-ra,nod lelnr'.,Jauut Jo asues € uIElrilPlrr \ sIuerq uroplas leqt .tirrr rrl l, : ,{yuo tou sr uorssar8Se pai\r r 'lueuodurr aJour JEJ sr .\tr-i;:: 'saop,{]r1r1sor{ r{lns^'sJ.\n}.lr-runb uado'afuaH 's.\\eJ-rr ! tllr^\ Jsoqt uea,lrteq Jpuui : .iq 'a-r,,'.-: 1,- ; s€q auo tuoq_\\ rltr ._' aqt ur sall a.III leuosrad.r;tir. ,{ute.r e JoJ J.\Es uY 'pooJ aJeqs ot prrE tur': ol JJuBll r, '8urrrr1 11e go rcadse le,rodtual aqt sazruSorar ,{qdosopqd rdog ' ra8rel aqt otur readdesrp pue 6uroJ a8ueqr 'turo3 aIr?t a^em eqt qrtem uEJ 4.4\ esneJaq aleudordde ruJas osle lq8ru ,,8ur,ne,u,, 1nq 'unou e sr ..alult,, 'stsrn8url uretsa6 roC 'ueefo aqt uo aAeM e uo liurtregar ,{q poorsrapun aq tsaq uer Surlurqt srqt 'puru uratse1A eqt o-L 'sqra,r lllerrlsrn8url ere 'arog -araqt 'sunou IIV 'peteleJ .{lateuuur 'ssarord e Jo ued sl eJlJ ul firrrqt,(-ra,ra :a8en8uel a^rteu rraqt ur sunou ou a^Rq tsa.4{qtnos aqt JO rdog aq1 'ro)rns .{lrep aprnord pue uarpgqrpuel8 1o dno-r8 e dn ;aqre8 plnor 'aqrrt rqt pue plrom aqt;o s,{e,tl aqt 3ur.uou1 'ra.ra -,troq ';aqtoupuer8 eql 'srelppol Jo aruaserd aqr .,{q paraqtunrua ,{1snor-ras aq plnoM leqt $lsBl roJ papaau e9 0r qt8uaJrs 1n3qrno.{ Jeq punoJ 'suaal raq uI 11us .{lyerrdlt 'raqtour V 'stod ro surls ur retuM prruer pue 'saadaal peuodsuert pue 'u.rop tq8norq 'd. tas 'srueld alqlpa pue lpurrrpeu pere -qte:i 'slelurue peuurls aqg 'lrrpqour parrnbe-r teqt Iro,r 'op ot lro^\ tlnlrJ -JIp peq ueruom ra8uno.'( aqf 'asuas I€rntlnr apeur 'raler\\oq 'urauud aq1 'sraqtotupuzr8 1n;rapuom r{rns tnq sraqtou rclod qrns aq plnol uauro^I u€rpuJ ',{lSursrrdrns 'teqt palruurer aruo (egOt) peary rarelirell '(fgOt raurarll) ,,uerplrqlpuer8 tea;8 pup '.uarplrqrpue-r8 'uarplrr{r .rraql roJ srs€q (yrep u uo elor ,{11we; Ieuortrpert aqt pallrJlnJ suorlereua8 i1:ap1a aql Jo luafred 26,, 'selEts patlun tsa.4{qtnos aqt ur serlrunruruol ue)rraurv a^rteN u1 'stuaredpuer8 aqr ,{q pa-ruar a-ram sraqtoru pe^\un .to uroq uarp -Jrqr 'srsu) uat Jo tno auru uI 'sraqto{x peMun ro.J stuaredpue;8 ,{q papr,r -o"rd osle se,u uoddnS 'uarplrqlpuer8 req Jo uortezrlerros aqt ro3 alqrsuods -ar ,{lueurud sr ua13o pue ,{yruey arp JO arrotsraulor rqt sr raqtoupuur8 aqr '(saqur edng pue ts,\{qlb l.y-relnrrrred) sartrun(uruor uprrraurv e^rteN eqt uI 'sdnor8 ,(lFouru lera^as ur stua;edpuer8 ;o alor aqt ot apuur are seruaraJar '(lgOt) spuDH pdttH puD utx'q4x Iooq s.raura6 ,{unug uy 'uoltrlluor teql Jo r{rdap aqt /q lrnrls eq lnq dlaq touuer eug ,,'petradsar tou s€,r,r sJapla rreql Jo rrropsl.t^ aqt aJaqr\\ eJnllnf e ur dn ,nor8 ol uerplrq) u,no .{ur lue.4\ tou plno,l\ 1 'parradsar aq lsnu pue s,(e,lt Jraql iaqt tnq ^\ouI s,tlat,r ,{ur e^eq J -raprstno uE rue 1,, 'parldar ap1 ,,gasuodser ro luauraar5u tuareddu elurl os qtr.t\ enurtuor noL op,, '.pe{su sun er{ ,,'{q,1,t,, 'srea{ ,{ueu -roJ .{tr,rrtre srqt ur patsrsrad aH 'aqrrt txau aqt ot uo oB pue .,(ltarnb a'rea1 plno,ll. rotelnpe eqJ ,,'osle Jlegs eM pue 'srqt tnoqe atou IulqJ 'asr.n ta{ tou pu" ueru 8uno,{ e are no,{ 1ng '.{us no,{ 1eq.u preeq a^eq aM,, 'aq p1no.,n {1d . . -ar 1errd,{1 V 'uolletuJrIIB alelpatulrll qll^{ lalu lou ,{11ensn se.n a8ussaur sr11 'aruapuadapJatul Jo u()qrl,iaq1 'snldrns yo a8erots ,r,,: e oprn<ud Hurdde.rr prrr ,-': a,req ,{lrpnbueJl pue 'Lr.rlti-sll '' 'eu(-l 'srleJJV uurpuJ Jo n€Jrng aqt or uars,(s leuortzrnpa rrnrq e io.J sura)uor rno.{ u.nou>1 aleui ot raqtaSot rurol ot e^Eq llr,^r saqrrl rJqto .lo srrp€rl eq] pue no1 '.{trunt:oddo alurl pu€ sa^lrsueqt ur apud ellrl qlr./!\ tSay a-re ,{aq1 'sa^rJ lr?uosJadralur rrJqt u: Jo suollefrput JEIturs pJtr,r; , JO JSUAS JaUUr U€ prrB \r..1:!. 6Lt 'JAI.L3-rldSdEd -IVd n.L-In'J-SSOUI V 180 .I'HE HEAI,ING WEB munity. Elders, therefore, are an important part of the human process, which is inseparable from the spiritual process and from things of nature. In many Native American communities, the role of grandparent accompanies the status of sage and tribal elder. This role is crucial within the community context and carries with it a sense of judicious authority. Whereas younger individuals carry on the cultural rituals, elders have the specific responsibility of standing in judgmenr, and in a sense, of being the conscience of the younger generations. A Cherokee woman from Oklahoma told of her impressions of being an elder, which included being a "grandparent" to many of her youngsters, most of whom were not related by blood. She explained that the grandmother is the glue that binds the generations together. She is the nurturer as well as the stern judge. I like my role as an elder; it's a respected, responsible, heavy role-too sacred to give up. I have been here sensing;, feeling, tasting, looking, and gathering masses southern Colorado. tnan.' ature coming from thrs :, : particular familv is des,:::= Ultima, (1972). Ultima. " ::-. Anaya's account, \\'as a :ti:: speaking communitiei rr'. li.: the communit,v. A curi;r'..;r"' community r.r'ho fills a :LiE,i, Ultima moved itr rtith '-:.. = parent. Ultima slipped e.{.:.r : ' on her apron and hu.:q l been there. Ilr ttt, ;:., - ,' to and she didn t h:'.. : town came trp th. ,i..-Mv lather '.,,. to. of knowledge. believe in feeding people. It is one of my responsibilities as a woman and as an elder. You share whaf- you've got no matter how much vou have I , -.. (Hutchison 1984). along the river The woman's reference to "feeding" has not only a literal connotation, but also refers to taking care of community members without regard to blood kinship. This idea is quite different from the way mosr Americans are socialized, particularly in responsibility and ownership. The crucial issue here is context. The Indian culture does not place importance upon either material possessions or upon individual ownership. The land and its fruits are not to be hoarded, but are to be preserved. There is no sense of ownership, instead, stewardship. If one is a guardian of land, food, and other material goods, it becomes one's responsibility to see that they are shared. Feeding in its literal sense symbolizes the process of sharing and giving. During the same interview, the Cherokee woman said, In my tribe, if you respect someone, you cook when they come. You feed them because it is vital to life. And so I cook. I love to cook, and I love ro go to rhe sacred fire and see the little old women who do the cookins. Always, it's wonderful food, and one takes a tiny morsel of food from each pot and puts it on the ground for the great spirit (Hutchison 1984). hrt.r: - . me the names ol pi--'. .' but most import;n: I ..= day and in the tirr:. hills. My soul srtr' And I h.,'::, ,.:.:. Successful agin{ :.'; -- something of irnportit'.c- : small Mexican village.. ':.. The role of grandparent is so important in some cultures that a surrogate grandparent might be taken into a family that is without a resident elder. In the Spanish-American communities in northern New Mexico and into the familv strtlclLlr-. i nance gives the father . ::' change for care frottt :... :. through the cultural in.-'-. was studied in tu-o ce nir:, r Villa de Hidalgo. thc 1'r 'and culture. Irt Slrrr ('t: :..: dian and speak \ahrr.,'. 'ianismo is a donrinarll i:-' woman. In this c()nLc'.r'. :l thought of as under{( .:'.. giving birth to childrr-n ,,:.:forbearance, arrrl llr c.,. :-.'. considered a trtot'rl ": - , friends and familr hril, ': . puB orrxel^l ,tlaN uraqllou .. lueprseJ € lnoqlr,r sr l€rlt \i;. -Jns € leql saJnllnl auros u: ;i aqt or oB ot r^ol I pue lloor , . ueqr peal no1 'eurotr iaqt rirruo lr slnd puz rod qJea ruol,l Fr -rrom 's.{e,u1y '8ur1oor aqi " stuaurelrnber ler)ads raq Surlroddns iq raqtour aqt dlaq {11ure4 pu€ spuer{ 'trp-.t uI 'relltoru aqt roJ alqernseald tou 'uorle8rlqo luroru p pareprsuol sr 'sqtuoru ,{tua.ltt ot ual tuo{ stspl qJlqm 'Surpea;tsearq pue 'aruereaqro3 roluu E pereprsuor sr Surqtrrg 'uaqt Sursrnu ur pu€ uarplrql ot LItlIq Sur,tr8 ur rrorte8auqu-Jlas pue alrJrJres .Io Ipap tearF e Suro8repun se .;o rq5noqr sr 'raqlour aql .{lalernc)e a-lotu ro 'rreuro,lt aqt 'tdaruof slql uI 'uuulo.^l llnpu aql Surpunouns sdrqsuorleleJ aql ur Jolrp.J luerrltuop e s ous'?uan -tow'sateld qtoq uJ 'sretzy ar1t JO a8en8uel eqt 'ltEnqEN >1eads pue uerp -uJ s€ parJrtuapr are sra8ullr,r aqt 'orleuetuv otuluoraC ues uI 'J,Intlnr pue a8en8uel ur cruedsrll ,{puap pu€ ozusaru are aldoad aqt 'o81eprg ap pll1n rolxoelladaa uI 'sarlrunuuor Surure.; uefrxeN luJrual oml uI palpnls suu elor s,uurxom aqr go tdaruor srqJ 'oanumlDa Jo a8eur lerntlnr aqt q8no;qr sa(uo) uortrato;d taqtou Sur8u aqr rog 'lyrue.g srq tuo{ JrEl roJ a8ueqc -xa ur Motsaq ol 'suorssessod raqlo ro puEI aulos Jaqlal aql sanrli efueu 'PIes UELLI. !'-,rr8 pue Suueqs 3o ssaroii - -luop yeurated 3o uralled luuortrperl aqt 'araqJ 'erntrnrrs ,(11ue.; aqr otul uelom ,,{11n3arer sr aref tur{l roJ {tlllqlsuodsa: aql 'sa8ellr^ u€rlxat\l IIErus uI 'paau .{aqt arer aqt SurlrereJ pue sJaqto ot afueuodurr 3o Surqtauos 3uua33o 'a1or lecordnar e .{e1d srapla teqt sarrnbar Sur8z In3ssallns tEql rrs ol ,(trllqrsuodsa: ..'puEI Jo uurpren8 E sr Ju.i I I araql'pa,uasard aq ot J.rf -:-. 'drqsrau.uo lenpr^rpur uoCr: ; Jo '(f tgt:ZtOt) arueprnS lnJare) raq rrpun.uar8 lnos.(r{ '.lllq aqt ur pu€ re^u eqt leqr pu€ 'tq8ru 3o aulr agl ur pue ,{ep paurual 1 tueuodrur lsou lnq eurl aqr ur .{tneeq ur arzad se^r eraql s€M eJeqt tur{l JoJ Jl{ ruo{ rq8na eqs 'seurlrpau raq :sleturue pu€ sprrq Jo 'saqsnq pue saert Jo 'sra.,nog pue stueld 3o sarueu rqt atu aceld lou saop eJntlnl rrr-i't,' 'd rqrr: -os eJ€ suufllaruv lsoru \r..,. poolq ol pre8a-r tnoqil.\\ ii+lnq 'uorlElouuo) IsJJtrl E .^- j pu€ ou€ll eqt ur raqra8ot palle.4\ aM 'erurtlll .tddzq sloor pue sqraq raqre8 ot slu€q ra,ru aql Suolz su,er J puv 'ol a,req no,{ q)nrrt 'lloq rJl]r,i- uzruom € s€ sartrltqrsuod::,r ..'--. Suueqteli pue'3ur1oo1 i:::.i'. pJlJes oo.l-J1o.r Lreaq r19:: srrreerp srq llar o1 uos;ad eJorx euo puq eq mo51 'peseeld se,n :aqtej .{111 'lrsr^ puu eqt ur tls or qtzd ,{lsnp aqr dn etu€l u,llol "les eqr tuo{ spueuJ raq ueq.4r ,{epung Irlun treM ol e^€q lluplp eqs pue ol IIEI ol euoauos peq ar{s ,4rou asneleq Lddeq fua,r sum rar{loru ,{111 'araqt uaaq s,{e,tr1e peq aqs Jr se sem lI 'tsEJIu arq qrr,4r reqlou .{ru pedleq puz uorde raq uo 1nd aqs .{ep tsrr; aql 'eJIl (pep rno Jo aullnor aql olul .{lsea paddrls Etulllfl : '. 'tuared -puur8 atz8o:rns E au€treq pue (gue; s.roqln€ eqt qrIM uI pa^ou erurlln 'Daxun '.aN ssalg uI 'papaeu raleraq^\ alor a^ruoddns € sllu Lltunuuoc aql aql Jo raple uE 'esuas Jrsssll lsotu aql ut'sr o"rapuD.r,nr v "(lrunuulol 3o aydoed aqt paluq Drapullw aqt 'tsaml{tnos aqt uI salttunultuor Suqzads -qsruedg .{ueu ut uorutuof, sI sV raleeq/aJlmpltu e se,n 'tunolle s,e.{euv ur paqrrf,sep Llrunuuror IFUIS oqt Jo qrrelrl€ru E 'eurltln 'Qrct) 'Dwxqn 'a14J ssa1g'Lqder8orqotne s,E.{suv oJIopnU uI peqlr)sap sr ,{yrue3 relnrrtred e :alor s.repla eqt Jo .{puanbola sleads uorlelndod slqt uro{ Suturor arnte -ratrl eql 'pa,r:asard uaaq a^Eq sLerrr p1o eqr Jo ,(ueur 'opurolo) ureqtnos 'a8pnfurats aqt s. "; aql spurq reqr anlli rqt .' j: palelal lou aJaM uloq.\,. I -. e Suraq papnlJur qrrq\1 -:: -EIIO LuorJ ueruo.\\ aal, -r-' aqf SuraqJo'asues e ul !r:i aql a^Er{ sreple 'slenlu 'r-:'',{rlroqlne snotrrpnf -J(, r>'-.; Jql ulqllM lElJnlJ SI Jltt:. - -fE luar€dpuurS 30 rlol !'-'. 'arnleu 3o s8urqt ruor,I p:rr i 'ssa:old uuunq Jt.ll J. .-:: I8I gAIJCTdSdTd -IVUnJ-Int-SSOUt V r82 THE HEALING WEB of diet, abstinence, and sweat baths, and by helping her avoid emotional (fright)-all actions related to the production of healthy breast milk. Built into the culture is a deep sense of indebtedness by the children, who wish to repay the obligation to their morher who has given so much and who will always be counted upon to give for her children. As an elder, she will not be neglected. Her unquestioning nurrurant role will assure the concern of her children (Graham and Millard 1983). states such as.susto position received a sreet :,' to symptom-focused Itrrd.., Foundation (Brort'n l!r;'-' symptom-oriented , ntecltc : :-.. HEALING AS A CULTURAL FORM OF SUPPORTIVE ARRANGEMENT "lhe people were not opposed to health. In fact, a major portion of their cultural practices were devoted to enhancing it, promoting it, and preserving it. They recognized, perhaps correctly, that the Department of Health dealt only with sickness. For health they relied upon their own tribal religious leaders, who combined a stored wealth of tribal tradition on healing with an intimate knowledge of the individual, the family of the individual, and the particular behavior considered antithetical to healthful living. Their practices resembled those of Hopi Indian shamans halfrvay around the world whose use of dreams was part of their preventive health methods, a concept much different from Western ideas. Often, Hopi shamans used dreams to find a compatible life role for an individual. This practice greatly contrasts with the Western medical tradition where, after years of unsuccessful somatic remedies, the individual might visit a psychoanalysr wh<r uses the dream to interpret the frustrations that have evolved from playing a role incompatible with the person's own needs and desires (Duarand ness. 1984). Anthropologist Margaret McKenzie once told us that in her work in a Melanesian community, she was impressed by the astuteness of the natives, whose translation of the Department of Health was the Department of Ill- Lost with h6111€'r'p.:t: . and lreatmenl as nrol'r- .i.i: has been a tendencr Jlt-.l I.. 1 ing rituals as exotic prJti:-r' nificance but not for the ::' . health and disease. l ltr : parts of a holistic persit,.--... 2, we discussed the tt'tt1t, ::-. mechanism b,v n'hic h s' '':-.. at some cultural svtttb,,l: ,.: origins of illrress etrd , 't ". eties are lrequerrtlr t'c..-.-. African tribe. specil'it .'.: :' on the one hancl. an.l I : other. The vien' is ettbc,tl: practices (Turner. 1lltr , I :. ferences in health pl.rti. r: natural patterns of ittte: : '.: THE FAMIL\'. THE T{ ln 'lain an t, rd.rr ' :. - Medical care in Western society has not always been so exclusively geared to the treatment of highly specific illnesses. In the past, folk pracritioners of many stripes peddled their remedies, and there was once a highly organized form of holistic medical practice-homeopathy-that stressed the acquisition of proper nutrients and the reduction of toxins so rhat the body's own defenses might best redress any imbalance of parhogenic agents. To practice homeopathic medicine required more rime in school than did even the contrasting allopathic medicine of contemporary medical schools, and it required large amounts of the practitioner's and patient's time (Vithoulkas 1979). Preventive health care losr out in the rush to find quick cures and, perhaps, higher medical incomes. The American Medical Association favored a model fcrcused more upon symptoms and the treatment of specific diseases than upon the underlyins causes of ill health. -fhis pharmaceutical treattt.. :. :' ments of traditional 1.i..:.. both a Westertt-strlc.r:.: . en-r medicine. the irtcl:'" . t.. herb tea," said to it,r..: " ' amUlel for pao rlr.rr_ an almanac cotrt:iittitr- ::.: follows tradition:ll (. hit-,:'. lune tcllcr irr llte trrr.:' - sions, a 'Iaoist priest ., :'. -. sider medical or 1>srti',..:: driving arva-v ghost. .,:. t Nearbr', a shatllatl {.itl 'be fbund perusing .lit -:ri-: ards, pickled j: have a far richer vnrie:'. ket, people bur high :: ^:: . uratsalA pue 'sultu€rl^ 'stueualddns p<to3 uoltlrtnu qlirq (nq aldclad 'ra>1 -Jetu eql ur .{q aso13 'sramou pue 'slooJ 'sasselS;o ,{1aue,r JaqlIJ -IP..J e e^eq sqJ.'qtleeq looqJs ur Jrxil alou palrr:-: lua8oqted Jo aru€leqrur PulJ ol qsnJ eql uI lno l\ol s.luarled pue s,;euorlrt rrli leJrpeu,{-re.roduraluoJ J() ru -teaJt eqt pue suroldur rs u, Ielrpatr{ uefrraurY aql .se.l llr Jo sesnP.r ;u -rtrerd eql leql os surxot Jo uou)r,l passarls teqt-.{qtedoJur( )'-'. Itq8tq u rruo r"^ r-rrqr pu,: eqt ul .sris 11o3 'tsud l1a,rrsn1:xa os uJJq s \p.\\lr puerenq) sarrsap pue spif, Surleld tuo4 pa^lo^a a.\Eq l IIr.r erots s,tslluqraq aqt qBnoqtle-sqrrq )Itetuoru pue 'seleus pa11ld 'spre -zrl palJp 'suroq snoraroull{r 'sraltue raap Jo ie-rre ue liulsn.lad puno3 aq uer aldoad 'satreureqd atuuro eqt uI 'pallnsuol aq uer u€tu€t{s e '.{q-rea51 'spo8 alqrsuodsar aqt Suuereyd ;o str-rrds lIAa puu srsoq8 le.ue saAIOAur arnparord aqt Jo trud u q8noqrle-trrlerql,(sd ro Ierlpau rapls -uof plno.{\ lse1A eql uI aM let{l saluouraref slJnpuoJ lsaud lsroea e 'suols -Erro ureual uO 'sratteur qtl€aq uI e)I^pe sa,tr8 aldual eql ul lellrl aunl -roJ V 'srotsarue pue '.(pruey 'at€J tnoqe sJallaq esrultlS l€uolllperl s,\l'ollol l€ql ssaullr Surlua,rard ro Surlearl uo uolleulJoJut liututeluol leueutlu ue apr,rord sreleeq aseulq) 'sreleaq aqt Jo po8 aql 'q o1 8uat1s oDd roJ lelnule ue aseqrrnd x>'(n,t1t ontl) trBtaua toq leuratul eqt ramol ol ples ,,'.€rl qlaq perpunq auo,, IeulflpJtu E as€qrrnd plnor IPnpIAIpuI aql 'aurrrpaur ura -tse1\ eqt tuaualddns oJ. 'iotrop a1.{ts-asaurqS u PUe a1,{1s-u-ratsa1,4 E qloq 1rsr,r tqFrur I€npI^IpuI eures aI{J 'eulllpeur JSauIql IPuoIlIpeJl .Io sluau -ala qlrm atuos 'uolllp€Jl uJelse1\ aql uI Jluos 'sluetuleaJl lelllnJluuruqd pue l€)rpa{u Jo aJntxltu Sutzeue ue slslxa araql ',{epol u€,ulsl uI NV,{\IVJ NI'(I'hI IHI ONY.I).CNVJ- IHI.A'IIWV.{ IHJ oQM ls{leuuoqe,{sd e trsr\ tr -Jnsun go srua.{ iaup laraq ! .(pearS arrlrerd srqJ .Jenpi.^r ot pelurl ,(1asop aroul qtlpaq Jo MeI^ e osle tnq 'sartllurd -grp dluo tou slee^ar a^Itledsrad IBrnllnl-ssorl aq.l '(4961 'Sutrer leuosradralur ;cl suratled lernleu {lleaq uI sarualaJ '-raurnl) salllrerd erer qtlEar{ Jo urals.{s Iernllnr alalduor e uI pappequJ sL4\eIA aqf 'raqlo -ard pue 'lr Surtourord ,tr 5u: 3o uort:od ;oleu e 'rrn3 u1 l -lll Jo ruatuuBdac aql se.\ q 'sa,ttleu aql Jo sseualntsg Jr{l e ur {ro,tt Jaq ur luql sn plol leqrrt umo rraql uodn prrlej Jo luacutredaO aql leqt .\1. pasn sueu€qs rdog .urUO 'spoqteu tltleaq a,rrlua.rald : punore ,(e,u;pq sueureqs LrE '8ur,rr1 InJqtleeq ot Jerueqrr:l -pl^lpul eqt Jo ,(11urug aql .lf : -leaq uo uorlrpert Isqrrt Jo q eqt uo sdrqsuorlulal IEIfos uI suolsuel tr3oads ot pue 'pueq auo eql uo 'suortr€er yerrSolors(qdoqr,(sd ot paIuII a-re s1oqu,{s l;rlads 'eqlll uurl{V Ilprus E 'nqtuepN aqr Suouy 'suats,{s padola.tap-11a,n ,{lruanbe{ ere salla -rros eteratrla,rd;o sJallaq 1erlpau aql 'tuatuleart JO pu€ ssaulll .1o sut8tro leuosradratul arotu alertsnlll teqt salllf€rd puu sloqur.'(s leJnllnr etuos lE {ool a,\{ araH 'aru€rslser s,auo saIJIuoJ uoddns IEIlos qrlq.t{ z(q usrueqraru aql Surpu4sropun ur s1oqu.{s pa,rralad go aeuel-rodtul aql passnlslp aM 'U ratdeqr uJ 'qlleaq 3o ,{pn1s yeraua8 aqt ruo4 a,ulrads;ad rllslloq e;o sued tuetrodut IEaluoJ ol uaeq seq lro.4\ qrns lo ,{ru8a1 aqJ 'aserslp pue qlleaq go Surpuets:epun IEJaueS arour e ol uollnquluof Jlaql lo.I lou lnq efuEfIJIu -Srs snor8tlar ro rryoqru,{s rlaqt rog Suttsa-ralut 'sartlre:d rlloxa sE slenltr 8ut -leaq pue sraleeq 11og ,{pnls ot sraqder8ouqla Suoue Lluapual e ueaq seq aJeqJ 'sassoulll llutlslp 'crgnads Jo eJnf aql uetll aJolu sE luatuleaJl pue qtleaq qtoq pemal^ teqt suoltlpert lerntlnr are {qledoauoq qll\{ lso'I 'auafs Lre-roduraluotr aql selBultuop qllq,\\'autrtpau peluelro-ulordurLs yo .{lodouoru reou aqt ueeq seq llnsai eql '(646I u,u.o:g) uollupunoC I lqtpaq Jo uorlrnpord aqt oi '(ge0t prellrlt pu IIIM eJoJ lu€Jnunu Suruorlsar sV 'uarplrq) Jeq roJ anrli ot r: ua.,rr8 seq oqm Jaqtou rrJqt aqt .(q sseupalqepur Jo esurs rallaJalrod aqr ,(q papr,lord ara,l,r uolternpa Ierlpou pasnro.I-uoldu(s ol aJueJslss€ IEITuEuI] Jo slunotue a3:e1 uaq,lr lsooq lear8 E pellafeJ uotltsod JPuortotue pro^e raq liurdlaq t8r lAI.L3Tds^dTd -IVU n J-I n'J-SSOd I V 184 THE HEALING WEB tural conception of healthful living. Tiaditional chinese differentiate a large repertoire of physical or physiological maladies, believe in a large range of important, cross-generational obligations to the family, and the extended family, and differentiate a small number of individual emotional expressions. Direct expression of negative concerns is considered potentially disrupting for long-term kin obligations. surface harmonious behavior accompanies the individual's denial of negative feelings. Frequently, suppressed feelings find somatic expression. The function of the shaman is to help the client reassess concerns about the family and about responsibilities to one's kin. The causes of somatic disturbance are then addr-essed, and symbolic expressions of feeling are permirted (Kleinman l980). The shaman's skill lies in finding forms of expression that respect the custom of removing such feelings from everyday life. A continuity of caring about people in one's network, living and dead, is established, and with thii act comes an affirmation of the rightness of continuing to live in health. NAVAJO HEALING Among the Navajo, the priest and the doctor are one and the same person. Religion, healing, and art are intrinsically woven into an amazing healing activities occur in an environment of group support given by the assistants of the tang-hi, by other clienrs (guests), and particulariy by the family. Beyond the elemenrs of magic and faith, srrong psvchological forces in their own right, the tang-hi healing process speaks to the Taiwanese cul- patent medicines. The costs and effectiveness of treatments are sometimes with family members or neighbors-usually older women commonly knowledgeable about illness and healing (Kleinman lg80). Those with firmly entrenched western views wonder at the apparenr inconsistencies and dismiss all but the physician call as visits to the realm of superstition. But for the Taiwanese, the western-style doctor is not one who understands his or her illness, its long-term causes, the best methods for its prevention, or its impact upon one's life and family obligations. The western-style physician is looked upon as one who asks few questions of his patient, gives a shot as a quick fix, and prescribes a drug. The more traditional shaman or tang-hi refers to the client as h'e-jen (literally guesr), has no fee (but accepts donations), and obtains a great deal of family information. The tang-hi gives extensive personal support to the individual and the family and prescribes a treatment procedure. The ritual symbolism and the occasional induction of trancelike states are part of the tang-ki repertoire, as is the prescription of traditional chinese medicines. observers of tang-hi note that these healers are warm, empathic, and supportive, while still authoritarian in their admonitions of what must be done. Most important, the discussed unity. The religious cercn-, healing intended to re\i":t The Navajo r''orlci , : session by evil spirits. The : and knowledge as reg.r."' : matic, based upon rih;i .: what has worked in thr :" exists a natural attd turt.=:. disease are best nret br r:. are concepts of beirrg :r. =:: to more cosmic forces I :.. storing the order. Thc'. ' along wirh e1[sr ].irri:: -' Earlier ue those to whorn \\'e arr . :-.1 of protectinpJ one's sel: ' health. We next attenr',::: understanding hori -, .r.'. i The importance of thr.. . preciated lrithout taki:'- , The path ft'ottt it :,fering. Some obst;rt lr. .:. ': ing painful S) mptonr- \: = lering most diffittrlt - --heart, then, of all nretr, --ri ing to our disconrfor:-:-. strikes of illness or J( ( : :(: sons, or to the malit c ;:. : words in a langu.rg€ ,\r i.:i they are presentali,'ri,: ' "-. standable uithin a hr' = :such as musical comp, 'i ' ceremonies, are rr'hul I;:'., a view of the origins ( 't -.r, fbr all that happens. L.:= ings in each culture. T:.. tend to be observed r.:':. : , , The Western fai:h lows the healinc .r. prr(:r rrr, c. These particular planation. Theit pt'.1.'-r,-. : beliefs. The svmbols ci, :. : '.: Sutzeure uE olul ua.\o.\l \Jrr au?s eql puB auo arE lol ) 'qlpaq uI r^rl ot Surnuiu srqt qtr,f!. pue 'peqsrlqEtsr i: .tiuuur go .(tlnurtuor \ Jlli aqt tradsar leqt uorssaldr; se Surleaq {loJ ot puatxa plnom ra^\od Surlladruor lsotu rlaqJ 'uorleueld -xa loJ ,(-relnqero,r u apr,to-rd ueqt 'ra,ta,noq 'arotu op sloqur.{s aqJ 'sJeIIaq s(auo uro{ lredu alrnb a^rlfeJJa s? pe.{\er^ are sarllrerd relnrrlrud esoql 'tsrreureqd eqt pue uenrsl.qd aql uodn pelalual sarllrerd Surleaq aql smol -lo.I tr ruo{ pue'qr.{u aJII e qrns tsnlst alratfs uI qlIP-J ulalsa,1\ aql 'ftVgl ra8uel) uor8rla-r Jo arroJ aql qlIM pa^lesqo eq ol pual qrlqa 'slunru Jo tas € ot puel sqr.{ur Surye,lard aqJ 'arnlln) qree ut sliut -leal pur? tq8noql rno roJ splotu aqt er€ s1oqu,(s a3r1 'suaddeq leql llu lq ,uortezrlr^rl sosnel eql Jo puE ,aJII Jo sasodrnd eql Jo Jo sur8uo eqt JO Mar^ € , .(ttg0t ueuurely) pf, 'pessarppe uaql arE Jrueql -rsuodsa; lnoqe puE .\llruFi u€uleqs ar{t Jo uortfunJ JU 'lJtuanba"rg'sFurlaa-; a.rrrr_-^Eqaq snoruoruJeq aJEJln( -uelod peJeprsuor sr sularr leuorloua Jenpr^rpur .]o l]c; eqt pue ',(11ure.; oql ot srr(r: a8rel e ur a^arlaq 'serpelrr: E A]EI]UEJEJJIP ESAUIqJ [EL -lnr€J aqt ol slead srrroJ Fur_ri, aqr ,(q ,'(Felnrqred pue '(srs: ,{q uanr8 uoddns dnorh I, aqt'tuetlodur tsol,\J 'Juup ) -n? IJIts aFq.u'a,trlroddns pr p4-3uo7 -tuPJ aqt puE Ienphrpur rql 'uorteurroJul .{1yueg Jo Ieap ou seq '(tsan8 l.11erarr1) ir.,i-. 'arrolrader ry-?uoy aqt Jo ul aqt pue usrloqu(s Ientu l .sJurrip 1o sJa^resqo -rpeJl arour aqa '8nrp e s:c slr{ Jo suortsanb s)lse i i -lsa6 JqJ'suortz8rlqo rlrru' slr roJ spoql3sr lseQ eqt .srsr or{M Juo lou sl JolJop J[ \]:-u Jo tuleeJ er{t o1 slrsr^ sE IIe) i tuaredde erll .(096 tE rapuo.\r s.\\l I uerrrurrl\, r. tuasa:d s1oqu.(s aJII asaqJ. 'sloqwts atq pagut;a8ue1 l€q.4\ are 'satuotuatal snor8rlar ro ,s1en1r: Surleaq 's8uos 'sqf.{u ro 'suotltsodulof IEfIsnur Ss qfns 'esaqt Jo a,rrsuaqarduol lsotu aqJ 'arnlrnrls Jap€oJq € uIqlIM alq€puels -rapur.{1uo Suruuatu Jo saluanbas ra8rel-s1oqu.(s f)uoltqluasa-rl a;e '{aqt 'peetsul '(s1oqur,{s aa'tttnrstp s11er ra8uel auuEsnS req,n) a8en8u€l e uI spro^\ ,{ldrurs lou are sloqtu,{s aqa 'aydoad 3o aruerou8l pu? erllelu aql ol ro 'suos -uas ateraduatul Jo seunuoJsllu ssor8 aqt ol 'luepllle ro ssaulll Jo selllls uappns ot 'aJII ,(1rep 3o aultnor Ilnp aql ol Sutueau-uoJtuofslp rno ol 8ut -ueeru sa,rr8 teqt erntlnrts rrloqur(s e sI ernf Jo spoqleu 11e 3o 'uaqr 'uEaI{ aqt ot aso13 'Surueatu Jo plo^ap ured st arnpua 01 llnllJJlp lsou 3uua3 -Jns aqt l€qt uJual .{lal]os .{ue ur sJaleaq pazrleDadS 'stuoldur.,(s lnJured 8ur -rnpo.rd sseltsrp Jo ornsEaul aqt asearful qred srqf uI selrelsqo aurog '3uua3 (ruuSur uro-r3 qrud aqa -Jns Jo arnseeru € sallolul(lqetrnaur qleap ol "'sloquls Ierntlnr;o areld aqt olul 1oo1 radaap e Suqul lnoqllm palerrard -de /i1n3 aq touuur 'ra,ra,noq 'aldoad 3o sloqur,{s asal{l Jo aruelrodur aqa 'uortratord lurrSolounrutul -reJuof rq8nu uoddns lelros ,\{oq Surpuelsrapun ur dlaq ot rq8noqr Jo epou flJllualrs E asn ol palduallz lxatl e yqlleaq ur uMoplEarq pu€ ssarls Suttulaq,\{,ra^o lsute8e JIas srauo Surtratord Jo alqedur uats.{s rrqr.{sd e go ued seuloreq palreuuor are aM tuoq,r\ o1 asoql Jo uortsluesardar rrloqurls qtrlqm ut .{e.u eql peqlrlsap aM reIIr?T 'asrallun aql ura,ro8 tzql s^{€l raqto 3uo1e Suruut8aq aqt uI u,/v\op plel uaaq e^€q 01 ples a;e ,{aqa 'raplo aql Sulrols 'safJoJ frrusoJ aJoul ol _eJ JOJ sapou Ienlu eJ€ Surleaq Jo saruoruaJar aql to sJaqlo ol suoltzlel S.euo uI rapto Jo lno Jo IoJJa uI Suraq 3o sldaruor are aJaql lnq .urs Jo ldaruor ou Sr aJaql 'uorleJolsal slr .{q laru lsaq ale aseaslp .JapJo pu€ ,saluoulJ€qslp ,SatruelBqtul leq] pu€ IeSJeAIun pu€ Iejnl€u 3 S]SIxa araqt teqt JaIIaq E sr Surleaq Jo eror aql lV 'rsed aqr uI paltlo'&l seq ltll{'4l. pue .{trunutuor aqt pue IenpI^IpuI ar{l roJ poo8 sr 1eq,u uodn pes€q 'Jlletu -Serd are sarrlrerd Surleag .ror^€qeq l€)rqle Jo sroleln8ar se a8pa1.,nou>1 pue uoseer uodn aruurlar Suorls e .{q peruzleq sr rEeJ eqa 'sturds una Lq uorsses -sod 3o real E ur peloqluu sr aleJ III puz ssaulll Jo plro,4t olenell aqa 'tueuruorllua eql qtl{ ,(uourreq puu qllueq arolsal ol papuelul Surluaq lnq qlt.4{ 'satuotualal snot$rler aVJ '{trun ,suorldarxa lo saruorxeJal alu ,na.; -(uor uaruo,n raplo ,{11ensnsatulletuos aJe SluaurleJlt J': 98r 1 Ar.Lsqdsdsd'IVunJ.-Inl-ssodl v 186 THE HI,AI-ING WT]B well as to scientific foI*t. According to carl June, the added porency lies in the ability to transform psychic energies from basic ,rrges i.,io aesthetic potentials, from fragmented acts, and thoughts, and feelings into a path of life that has both direction and a power foi growrh and eririchm..ri g.r.,g r964). sistants, and the fhnril'. :-,.: T'he chant ritual B.r.. l'ills the parienr rr irh j, ,r .,: basic emotional involr cr:.r:.- ol'the Navajo seek ro tap with appeals to the life symbols. There are a variety of wavs in which healing energies are musterea. rn. Appache seek visions to help reconnecr aberrant sufrerings to the spirits of the healing myths. For the Navajo, the process that leads to a cure combines elaborate, prearranged symbolic rituals rvith a decidedly social setting. our conrention is thai social participation is an essential part of the ture. . - The diagnostic and treatment f unctions are sometimes led by separate individuals. The former is done by highly sensitive, intuitive individuals, usually women; the latter is conducted by a medicine man or woman and assistants who have studied the many chanrs, the folk myths of healing, and the ritual fcrrms .f sand painting. whether the problem is pneumonia, a broken arm, or a feeling of weakness, the procedures always require elaborate preparation involving cleansins and the appropriate herbs. The healer orchestrates a ceremony that frequently goes oir fcrr four or five nishts. The common nine-night cha't and hearing wourd be irnpossible without the active help of the family in planning the meals. Before the entire procedure is ended, there lvill have been several sweat baths. A large sand painting symbolizing fbur directions which stand fbr the major pola-rities of life, will be creared on rhe ground. The chants are recited iia'"lerrlv, and masked dancers, sometimes in frightening forms, represenr various spirits. ln the Navajo religion, rhere is al'r'ays rn rtt.-pr r, integr.are all things r,vithin a framework of cosmic harrnony. There is also alway.s a residue. sometimes seen as an ornission or an imperf'ection in the sand paintings, that cannot be included. 'rhis part is called turuli. rt is a part associated with sorcery and witchcraft. -I'he songs and ceremonies oft the medicine man will either help banish the evil spirits or ro isolate ancl disarm them. Since they are a part of the life symbols of Navajo culture responsible for certain ills, their remcval at the hands of other potent symbols of lif'e is tantamount to cure. The myths of the Navajo are detailed, and their characrer.s r.av experience punishment and renewal such as losing one's skin or being ingested, disrnembered, banished, reborn, or reanimated sexualry. Ai- the healing goes on, parienrs identify with the coyote woma', the Begear Boy, Eagle Girl, child Born of water, or N{onster Slaver at,d experierrce the characters' transformations in the myth as their own. The shaman, the as- It is this psychic energy that the rituar healings Woman spirit rener,s lt.:.. conlacl with her irr tltt .:--.:. tnonv, helping to .rt lric. r " in old age." Navajo nredit irrc rr'..: icine than the reverse. Il .. : alion, t he rit ual is r r.rr I ' firrces of healine hct, ,r t ':.' phvsicians, n'ho, recogrrr:.:'.. ual, have invited theil hc.'common. Increasinglr'. Ill( )(icl :. Naraju. l)onald 5;rrrdrr,: : Narajo medicine nlclr .1: : lives immersed irr reli- " deep ancl searchirrg rrr, : - , giving and withholcli n,1 . Thev have lirecl lirc. '. i : the goal that is tlie rr r':. the ernbodirne I)t .f '.:.1 ,. in their o\\'n (ultllrr. -,: l old men and t.orlclr ease and .:. r .'. path that has alr' l'' . :...-. hardship and ascrl:, .. Whatever tlre ree.,,:.': of the path rt hic h r.,: .' ccllnlrrrt .,.. : ner 1979:9). "Ib the medii:al spc-:.1.. a particular organ of thc t, ' or chemical of :l-,t , experience is one of illnc:: : suir o{ one's lile ancl tlr. : :.: means to deal rr'ith tlrr: ::,r -sP Jql 'u€tueqs aqf 'rr.\\{) l: Jo sqt8uerts aqt Surddut arrnber ,(yuessarau atuts slqt qtrm IEap ot suearu aqJ 'sraqto ot uortBler ur salor s,auo Jo tuetullrJlnJ aqt pue a-]rl s,auo Jo trns -rnd aql qlrm aluaJaJJelur ue-uoJruolsrp 'ured 'ssau11r Jo auo sr aruarradxa aql 'aseasrp Jo slsoq tsour JoC 'arJnos Surlragur aqt Jo Jeloruar lurluaqr ro I€rru€qfeur ur sarl .{ltuanbar3 tsotu ernr stJ ',{poq aql 3o ue8ro relnrrued e Jo uortrruJe aqt sr aseasrp'ltapos uratsa^\ ur lsryertads Ielrpatu aqr oI '(6:6461 rau aql a.rueuodxJ puE .lJ.\r:l( ',tog re88ag aqt'ueuro.11 .1, eqt sV ',{ylenxas prteurrrrrr. -ur liuroq Jtr urIS s.Juo brrr. -x,r .{eur slJl.)plpq ) .uJrll I,r: sl a.JII Jo sloqru;(s tuatod r:r -pueg) arnrn; rql Jo uropsrm arll roJ srs€q aqt uuoJ [[rts u€] qrrqM qted eqr 3cr uorsr^ rqt pa,r.rasard a^uq ursep aqt go s:a8urs plo asaqt 'uosear rqt ra^eteqj\\ 'alqetderru rroru pue raureld qred aql salzu 8ur,rr1 )rtrrse pup drqspreq Jo aJll e sdeqra4 'ruopsr^r rauur oJ qrzd aqt-eraqt uaaq s,te.u1e szq teqt qred aqt ot purlq sn epeur s€r{ ter{.\r lsnf sr leqt sdeq-ra.1 ',{o[ua e,n uoJruor pue esea a,rrle:zduror aqt 3o arrds ur ,{laoos umo -rno ur aJEJ Jle ueuro,\'r. pu€ ueut plo asrm qrns 'uorsrl rrrqt go qtdap rqt ur leslrlrun 1a,{ pue ,arntln: umo laqt ur aruor{ tE ,{lq8no.roqr erz oqM ueruom pue ueru plo rsrM aqt.}o tururrpoqure aql auof,eq a,req ,{aqa 'errllas ur luads aJII p Jo lanaf fiuru,uorf, eqt sr tuqr leo8 aqr pruIEI]E a^€q ueqt lo ,(ueu ta,l '.(t.ra,rod puu drqsp-req Jo sr^rl parrl a,req ,ieq1 .rr4 alqrsuodsar a.rnt1n.r otl: r; 'txeql uJEsIp puB elBlost (,eulfIPJLu aql lo Saluorlreitt, pJtelrosse tred u sr jI 'tpltr; l,l -luted pues Jql ur uorlJ4.r,r. -rsal e s{e,rt1e oslu sr eJJq J_ , '3urp1oqqlr,n pue Sur'rrE uaaMlaq efueleq at€frlap e ureturetu ,{aq1 Surqrruas puu daap "{1r1e1uau e ,{eydsrp tnq .{llnJeref sprom rraqt qFra,u, ,(aq1 'uorFrlar ur prsraururr sa^rl Jleql tuads a^uq oq.4i. dnor8 lletus e se uaruoM pue uattl Jurtrpeu clle,rel\I Surureura; aqt saqrrrsap 'tsrrturqrlsd uer8unf B lraupues pleuoq .ofu,,re51 eqt uodn paqfzorrua suq ,{tarros yerr8cllouqret urepou ',(13ursear:u1 'uouIuIo:) y1e aru-rfialur ot tduaur: ur . snolJEA luesatdal 'sutt()l i.: 'lyssal,ueg patpar are sluErll --re1od roleur aqt r(4 puurs ill a8-rc1 y 'sqlpq tnJ,rs [erJr:r eqt aroJeg 'sJ€atu rqt Hurrrralqrssodur eq plnoM 8ur1re' J\U Jo JnoJ JoJ uo saoF r'. rrlJ_ 'sqraq ateudordde ru. -qc1a .r-rrnbar s,{e,n1e se.tnlrr } E 'eruoLuneud sr uralqorcl ru pue'8ur1eaq;o sqr{u IIq ri pue ueulo,\{ Jo ueru aurftl)-t.-. 'slenpr^rpur a rlrnlur,J.rnr:u: ateredas {q -un are sefuBtsur qlns tnq 'aset llnrrgrp E qtr^\ dlaq :raqr petl^ur J^Eq rlBn -trr aql puB ueueqs Jqt Jo JaMOd 1er:rads aLIt Surzru:iolrr ,oqM ,sueDrslqd p"l saurrlauros ) i; -edtrrlred Jeoos teqt sr uonij. -trr :r1oqru,{s pa8uur:ua:d .:. aqr'ole,re51 urapou 3o saldurexa tuafar atp araqJ, 'lue^e Jql arolaq Srrrleeq Jo sDloJ aLIt:iuIZIIIqour 'uotlerudard alenbapu ue epr^ord ot pasn sr lentrr aq1 ,uorte -rado uE ro3 lurldsoq aqr or JJo Furo8 sr uosrad E JI 'rsra^ar aqt ueql aunr -pJtu uJatse6 Jo lueJelol aJou uaeq 3uo1 a,teq uaru Jurlrpeur ofe,le51 llnuaq Jo qr'd eqr SuDIIe.{r,, go luo8 Iurnrlnr aql e^rrqrp rql rol 'sr{t\ru,-- .r ,",;,"f,,11,""il lfeuuofal dleq ol suorsr.\ -.lJ.r> qllq^{ ur s.,(e,m -;o llarre.r e r; ot Iaas ole..re51 aqtJo sFurlr:-r IEnlll eqJ -req Jeuletxa pue Jeuratur Jo atuls e sarnpord lupqr oqt ur raq qtlm tletuor 'suosEas aql Jo apb ,{.ra,ra qtr.4\ Jlesraq SilJUer lurds ueuor1,1 Sur8ueq3 aqJ_'lemeuarJo asurs e qlrm'aread pue lof qtr^r luaned aql sllrJ '1red sa>1et ,(y1ue3 errtua eqt qrlqm ur ,,',{e61 Furssalg,, Iunlrr lueql eq.L 'luaulaAIOAUI ItsuorloruJ Jrs€q !iur>1o,ra suortrpuor r rapun Eurerp aqt treue dlaq ,{1nue.y aqt pue .stuutsrs liunfl tuau-rqlrrue pue Llt.\\(,;_ go qted P otur s8urleeJ prrp !l )rleqlsae olur saft'rn frseQ ru, sarl l.rrrarod pJppe Jql .Funl 48r -{AI.L3-rIdS}IId -IVd nJI n:)-SSOdl V 188 T'HL, H[,AT,ING WEB inner subjective experience. Those who deny this method because it is inherently subjective deny a major part of human nature. Lewis Mumford writes, without that underlying subjective flux, as experienced in floating imagery, dreams, bodily impulses, formative ideas, projections and symbols, the world that is open to human experience can be neither described nor rationally understood. . . . When our age learns that lesson, it will have made the first move toward redeeming for human use the mechanical and electrified wasteland. . . . (Mumford 1967:75). Their culture has surr i,,.,-: vide adequatel,v for the ltreservations. But the er:.: reflected in the 198(l cer... the largest--of 333 tribc. sixty. Though more thulr ' the elders are dispropor',i, During the 1960s and l,l nursing home and the :e:r belief that they could t:rkc been; as one got older. ri.. A majorin o[ thi. , ,.. most are unable to nrec: decayine hories. \lanr h of these elderll receire n income. An unusuallr h-. ages forty-five and ,. In Western society, the poet and the artist contact this symbolic cultural reality for those few who are curious. This symbolic reality, reflecting the meeting of our sense of inner phvsiological, happenings with external social happenings is used only on the fringes of Western medical practice by certain psychotherapists. By contrast, the Navajo religion has been described as - sir.t. I a profound meditation upon nature and its curative powers. Through the centuries their visions have crystalized into living symbolic units like the pravers and the sand paintings, which are easily reproducable and may be transmitted from one generation to the next (Sandner 1979:273). fiorty-five exhibit the rtr:r-' five (National Indian f., ,,r: The values of kin.l'." lieved. but ther are n'):: ..: off to school, the elders :l-. Most did nol. The rr.,,i.'. and wisdom to childrcr; ":. ing and of living pr,,r rdc -. the barriers of distancc ..:. It is a dogma connecting all things and every detail, large or small, of nature and of experience. It links each bone of the body to a universal destiny. It omits nothing, no matter how small or hidden, and extends even to inconceivable space. Not only are the elements all present, but they are part of an interlocked unity in which the individual has a significant function. Healing ceremonies help redirect this function. In the Navajo view, the final dissolution of the individual means becoming one with an ultimate harmony. The teaching of the young by the elders makes such life symbols as natural to understand as any other simple truths of experience. "On that foundation, the Navajo have constructed an edifice of symbolism that can take its place among the great healing systems of the world" (Sandner 1979:273). ordinarily go with surh i among some Indiarr c,ic:. all of us. Their rr'isdt'rr, .. ecology as partner rarhc: : and ofrespect f91 1fig rrlrg ern sociely goes tln h.r:r.: : but no one is listenir.rg The cultural prac::... societies. Women in ch":--. There is a sense in which Navajo, Hopi, and other Native American healing practices have served their communities well. Whereas other cultures have rushed into the melting pot, welcoming their own assimilation, Native Americans have persisted in maintaining their culture following their physical conquest and their removal from the land of their ancestors. cent pressure there is .:-. : ern Europe endtrre thr' ;:' own expense. The hc;i.l'.. .'re less protective th.u-. its capa<'ity lo dercl,,l' :--., lo see whether : -uur (t: :'- 'srotseJue rreql Jo puel aql u 3ur.tro11o3 erntlnJ rraqt Surr 'uorlelrursse u.uo rraql Eurtu lnf raqto seareqM .JI3.t\ sJr. uelrJatuv aArlEN Jeqlo pue teqt uO,, 'aruauadxaSo srltrl, s1oqu.,(s eJrJ r{lns saleu srap al€urrlln ue qlr.t{ auo Sururor. ',,r.rarn raupueg) ..plrom aql Jo sLu. uef leqt usrloqurls Jo a)Urp. ole,re51 Jql ul .uorlJur- Jo 'JJer" a3.ru1 'llelJp i-ror. .(943:6461 :aup -suerl rq leru pue alqe:nporda,i e dola.tap ot pue sernllnf raqto uro{ ureal ot stroJJe rno raqtaqm eas ol ,lrou patsat Suraq are e1,1 'sanbruqrar rgoads ltq8tq dola,rap ot ,{tneder str sr ql8ua-rls s.aJnllnf JnO 'suorlelnrouur rrseq .{uzru u€ql alrtlelord ssal ar..' ole,te51 aqt Suorue pue u€,rruJ ur sar8olorusor Surleaq aqa 'asuadxa u,uo s,euo tE tiur,rr8 Jo spr€.rar aqt s€ IIa.{r se qsrn8ue aqt arnpua adorng ura -ls€E ur pue sa8elp,r uelrxahl ur sJaqlot{ 'snoruroua sr araql ernssard tuar -salope pu€ '.strrguor alor roleur a,req uedef Sur8ueqr ur uatuo1yserterfos tragrad uo-rJ std-rarxa lou aru tu pa{ool e^eq eM salrtferd lErntlnl eql 'Surualsrl sr auo ou tnq 'rala se 8uo-rts s€ are s"apr eqJ 'ssol aqt Surrrtou .,(1areq uo sao8 ,{1anos ura -tse6 'pepeau aq .(eu suossel esaqt sE qlntu sV 'esrm aqt JoJ tfodser Jo puz 'altrerd rrtsrloq u se Surleaq;o 'ratroldxa s€ uerlt raqter leuued se l.8o1ora eqt qtr^{ 8ur,rr1 go 'uorsaqol I€qrrt pue .{11urey Jo sr ruopsrm rlaqJ 'sn Jo IIe ol anle^ tear8 go aq ,{eu teqr ssurqt .tloul or{M 'srapla uerpul auos Suotu€ arnlreJ Jo pue uonelosr Jo asues e sr eraql 't3g8 e qfns qtrm oS Lpruurplo plnoM leql snlels ,{11ue3 aql apnpard a8en8uel pue aluBtsrp Jo srarrreq aql ,no51 'are1d penle^ pu? anbrun e qtrm rapla eqt papr,rord 8ur,rr1 go pue 8ur -l€ar.l Jo sl.e.n;o Suueqs JqI 'uerplrqrpuerS ot pue uaJplrqr ot tuopsr,r pua a8pal.nou4 uo ssed ot ser* raple eqt go tgf Ieuortrpert aqJ 'tou plp rsotr{ 's.(e,u p1o aqt afzrqrua ot urnter pJno.l\ .{aql lq8noqt sraple aqt 'looqls ot JJo tuam ueJplrr{f rraqt ueq1yaldoad lueur ro3 pellglnJ tou alz,{aqt lnq 'pa^erl -eq IIIts are asralrun aqt qlr^{ .{uouruq pue drqsurl Jo sanle^ aqJ -funJ tuefrJru8rs e seq Ienpr.\ are (aql tnq 'tuasard IJe stul ua^a spuetxe pue 'uapprq lo Iesralrrrn u o1 ,(poq aqt Jo ; -,{erd aqr elrl slrun rrloquis b'ur.. aqt q8norqa 'sra.nod rlrtulnf i Surrraua.r'{lll"r, rryoqu,{s -1ne erloqtu.(s srqt -ap ueeq seq uor8rJar ole.rel arrleerd Jelrparu uretsal,\ Jo : Ieuretxa s8uruaddeq .1esrq '(etgOt Sur8y uo IrlunoJ uerpuJ leuortelq) aarg -.{lxrs a8e tE suerpul-uou Jo srrtsrratrereql leuortrunJ eqt trqrqxe arrg-,(gog a8z te su€rpul tuqt pa.uoqs .,(pn1s yeuorteu auo 'l.1xrs pue ang-,{uoy sa8e aqt uaa.l{taq arp salutu uurpul yo uorl-rodord q8rq ,{lpnsnun uV 'aruorur rraql atrdsap slrJauaq prerrpa11 ro ar€lrpatrAl ou elralar ,{pep1a asar{t Jo ^\ol tuarrad q4 puu 'Surqurnyd roopur IrEI IIus sauoq ,{uep11 'sarrroq Surlerap Jraql uo srreda; lrseq ro Surluaq JoJ slsof Jraql leatu ol alquun aJe lsoru pue 'pa,{oldura tou ar€ (tuelrad 96) dnor8 (lxrs-raao srr{t Jo ,{luoleur y 'sn]?ls ur aseaJfur ue sEn araql 'rap10 lo3 euo s€ :ueaq tletuol tsrl sl.e.uqu pzq rr .{e.u aqt s€^\ qrns 'umo rraqt Jo arer alet plnor .{aqt teqt Jarleq aqt ur palsrsrad sarlrunruuror ur?rpul 'Jeluaf Jorues aql pue aruoq Suts;nu eqt Suua^ofsrp sem zrrrauv alpplru uaq,u'sg461 pue s0g6l aqt Suunq '(ZgOt ,{a1-rn3) uolt€Aresar aqt uo punoJ .{laruuorgodordsrp are srapla e{{l 'stuaprsar ueqrn ,rou al€ suerpul IIe Jo tuerrad gg ueql arotu q8noql '(txrs a8e ra,ro suosrad 000'60I Sururetuor raqta8olp 'saqu1 €€€ Jr>-tsa8r€l eql tnq aJB olu,rz51 aqa'lpapya uerpul uo snsual 086I eqr ur petlagar -auo sr eJnllnf uJelse^A ol uorlepouruo)fE eqr Jo luelxa aql lng 'suorlE^raseJ I€qrrl uo Surureuar esoql roJ uou€rnpa pu€ qtl€aq aql roJ {lalenbape apr,t lsrrJ eql epBtu e^uq lll,^\ tr ,uoss: llleuorler lou peqrrlsrp reqlrru pllom Jr{t 'sloqurls pue suorr:a{o 'l-ra8eur Surteou ui p:ruar.radu -alse.\l. perJrJlfa[e pue Ie]rueqJJrL -o-rd or suortz8rlqo lrzarl palpslnJun Jo atrds ur pa^r^rns seq arntlnr rleql Y pJoJrunw srMe-I 'aJnleu uPrli -ur sr u asnEfaq poqlaul srqt , 68I lAIJ-DldSdId -rVdnr-rn)-ssout 190 I'HE HEALIN(; WEB more caring society can counter the effects of other changes that have led to a loss of concern for the human community. Sometimes, when looking beyond our own horizons, we are able to see a vision of community that still has much to teach. In her autobiography Blackberry Winter, Margaret Mead reminds us, "There is hope, I believe, in seeing the human adventure as a whole and in the shared trust that knowledge about mankind, sought in reverence for life, can bring life" (Mead 1972:296). THE POL E.CONOM OF CARII THE WAYS OF LO\'E RE.IATIO] The hope and thc : to find (omes frorn tlrc .,does not have to be stir,l:.: rnuch sophistication in ,,..: : edge, the rvay is lost. .r: : than cclntributinq to th:r :t consciousness. The tt.rr . : guish, and death ar-e a! r'... lf the Ireudian corrtel,: , : :: biological terms, it rtould .:, . toplasm. contaitrs r)rrl r 'v1 . turins, and reprodtrcini , : In this bclclk rve har. :: lhe ravages of desl rrrtti'., :cific rush to find soltrti,,n. F has become o[ the lorLr l : also part of the n'ar'. l-ir.. . definitive ansrver. \\-e h.' , t the six blind rnen descrl-.r looked upon the relat j,': ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course HPRF 135 at San Jose State.

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