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Cultural caring - t I l I i lr I h I i rl I clnly after a...

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Unformatted text preview: t I l, I i lr I. h I i rl I clnly after a substant;,'. : CARINGANI) HEALING FROM A CROSS-CULTI.]RAL PE,RSPECTI\rE in fact, recruiterl lr,-:rmediate and ettdtrt ::.. . brides through l)i(:L.t r States. 'fhis pattern .:: : en's domestit :tthit : . .... roles was also rnet. ::. ment o[p()\\el'lul r' ::.:' I hese interrral rrci,. : , t persist (L1'man 1!tlt' Throughout our writing so far, we have been asking what is happening to caring relationships in the contemporary United States and in industrial Euro-American society. The struggles and changes we have been noticing in families, in {iiendships, and in communities have consequences for our health and for our survival. The stakes are large enough to warrant a look at how the particular Western brand of relating interpersonally contrasts with that of other cultures, which view health, well-being, and survival in ways more closely related to their established patterns of supportive interpersonal ties. Of course, contemporary Western society includes a tremendous amount of internal cultural and ethnic diversity. With the exception of Native Americans, we have chosen not to focus upon these divergent subcultures. 'I'his decision was made because many of them reflect strong accommodations to the Western mainstream, for cultural traditions result from the gradual evolution of the human modalities for dealing r.r'ith a particular environmental reality. They also reflect accommodations to a minority status made necessary by restrictions set by a more powerful majority. Our understanding of the social networks found among minority cultures is enhanced by taking a cultural perspective. For example, consider the eff'ects of early immigration statutes restricting Asians from the United States, but 170 A sotnerr lt.rl d :: -: Rlack Americans. \1...:. woman fullr ottr.ll.ic i : work force. The 1,,'....- ' as service rtorket'r. .. .'could find no \\r)tk .:' three-generalir rtt.rl. :: ::. kin, that (,arol \t.r, k munities has a hi.i' :. , tradition. ltt eru'rlt.. group and the onrn:: :r' traditional cullttt.rl ; ,". nith basic exi:tctt, r . often discloqcs rr r' ,-( would imagine: bu:. : bit further lelttr'\r': :' -lhe illustrati,,r:. lornrs. The exrrrrrp.. seletted to sh'rr .r , 1.., dustrial one nith fc,'..: in the West.'l'lte..'., and Mennonite (,';r:' whose patterns of ir,:.:: assimilaticln. and t,, ::: vironmenis. Higlrl. among certain \1it..,. .i Coast Mirvok alrcl t:.,: ::.. . : These illttitr.,': :' lowed bv a disttt..t, : ,' the worth 9f ;111 glrlc: .been able lo ltt tttt....,identilied * ith .,,r :c" . ',: : lnq 'salBls patrrr-l )il SIJ{JJ Jtll JJpl:tl,r r ': -ue sI seJnlJnJ .\lr-tL)rrrr-i: l .rnO ',(tr-roleu 1n.;.r; r.., ,.: -uls lluourru r? ol slr( :.;l relnrrlred e qtr.\\ Eurlt:.1; ruo{ tlnsal suorllPPit .r -tuo)Je 8uo,r ts l)Jg: I ". ' -lnrqns lua8la.rrp as.ru : -EN Jo uorldarxa ar{. ';. snopueureJl e sJprlltr.l . . rreqt roJ suortntrtsur lerrads Surpr,rord yo uralqo"rd s,,{tarcos qlrm perfrtuapr etuolaq s€q Era luaredpuer8 aqt 'teqt puoLag 'atelnurnrre ot alqe uaaq seq eqs ro aq qtleam aqt ueqt ratearS ou ,{1yuld,(l sr repla up JO qtro.l{ aql ',(tapos uretsaM urapou uI 'sreple JO alor aql tnoqe uorssnrsrp e ,{q pa.,nol -loJ ere umo Jno ueql Suuer erour sarlrunururof Jo suoJteJlsnllr eseql 'xn€atles uretse^\pru aqt pue lo,4{lw tseo:) lsala aql re .,(gauq {ool IIEr{s aM pue 'saqrrl uefrreuv a^rteN uleuac tsuoue palsrxa osl€ sartrunururol elrseqof pue alrleJedoor .{1q8rg 'stuauruorrl -ue alrlsoq urqlr.^{ ueuo sorlrununuof a,rrtcalo.rd ur€tal ol pu€ 'uorlelrrursse 3o sarnssard puelsqtrm o1 pa8eueur a,teq Suuer luuretul go surallud asoq,\{ sarntln) saryrlduexa 'satets patrul-l aqt JO sarlrunururor atluouuatr{ pue ra{eqs eqt e{rl 'ado"rnE uretseg ur Itetqs qsr.'naf aqlgo eser aqJ'tsa1,\ aqt ur palJnffo a^eq uEql uorl€uarlE Jo uorlelosr Jo slsof JaMsJ qlll'L euo lerJlsnp -ur 'ulaporu e o1 ,{lanos lernr 'leuortrpeJt ruo{ a8ueqr e ,loqs ol pelreles sr qrnqns ol1o1 e ur ueru uorlezrue8ro 'parrelas yo alduexa aql 'sruloJ Ierntln) yo puu,{u aqt uorJ .ttal e tnq ar€ MolloJ leqt suorturlsnlll aqJ_ 'ruearlsureur u€lrJeurv-olliuy aqi uro{ pa^ouar rJqunJ lrq e saldruexa patreles e^eq aM 'tsurtuor 3o sesodrnd roJ !tnq laur8erur plno^\ euo u€ql Surrur Jo sruJoJ ur ,{lrnua8ur pue ssauqlrJ eJoul sasollsrp uauo . uortupounuoll€ q)n5 '(OZ,Ot aunuale1 :egg6l sr,na1) aruotsrxa rrseq qlrm -uaddeq -ul a,lrlroddns Jo slr r):.;l Jelr^rns pue 'liuraq-rtr ".. -uo:,(lleuosrad.ralrrr : . luelrem ol q$nou;r :::seruanbosuoJ J.\Erl \rr.: ueeq a^€q a.n sa8rreq. '-ur ur pu€ satBts pellu.sr ter{,,\\ 3tr11.i r pauraluol surauud uoulurol aqr ,{1uo 8ur,rua1 'suraled Iernllnl leuoltlperl .(ueu ;o uortelrpeJa pre.trot qsnd .,(1-ra,rod go aruasa-rdruuro eqt pue dno-r8 IeJnllnl R .Io uorssaJddns ro uorssarddo aql 'sas€f aulaJlxe uJ 'uolllpeJl Ierntlnl luaraqur ,{ue aprstno ter{,rlatuos 3ur.{1 loor le)rrotsrq p seq sarlrunu -Luor IIEIg aruofur-Mol Lruroduratuor ur punoJ &tOt) IIEIS loreS teqt 'uDI a^rtfrJ pue lr?ar Surpnpur 'sorlrureJ petuunxop-el€ural 'leuolteraueli-aarqt ;o uratted rruqte eqt 'eruaH '(OgOt uo13ur,t6) IIe le {ro,rr ou puIJ plno:) uetu Ir€lg uaq,t\ uaUO 'uetuo,tr, IIEIS ot elqelre^e eJaM 'sla{Jo,tt afIAJes sE ro srrtsaruop su raqlra 'roqel pazru€Srouou 3o s8un-r tsa,l\ol aI{J 'elroJ Iro,\,l aqt Jo tno uatuoM atrqrt ,(ueu ldal -raleurauoq sB pardn:ro (11n3 ueuo,n E qtrm ,(11ue3 lpapl aqt lrrdap ot suoJJa tueartsul€I [ 'suurlretuv Irplg Jo slro.lrtau aqt palraJJz uorlrsodur lernllnl luereJlrp luqme{xos V '(Of Ot rretu,{1) lsrsrad ol papuel eAEq sarlrunruuro) uBfr-reuv-esaulq3 uI sIJo,\{lau luuJelul aseqJ 'suorllunJ Surleqarer ,{ueur rog suorleztue8ro ,{ltunutuor lngra.ttod Jo luau -do1a,rap aql qtrm 'sarlluntutuoJ uurlJetuv-asaulqJ ut 'latu osl€ s€,4{ seloJ SurIela-rer Iauorlrp€Jl ur uauroMJo afuasqe aqJ'a)uaIAJasqns fllsaurop s,ue -uro.n Surpre8ar uorlrpert I€rntlnr e pelu€qua ,{1ure1rar urattud sIqJ. 'salets petlul-l aql otur saprrq arntrtd rreqt pauodrul uaqt 'sarntrtd q8norqr saplrq tralas ot alqe are.4{. uaur asauedef auog 'slloJJe Suunpua pup arelpatu -rur r{loq peq eru€ieqrul xas fiurtlnsa-r eI{J 'elrq alras ol petlnrler rlruJ ul 'panrurrad uaaq Lpearle p€q uatu u€IsV Jo raqunu Ieltuetsqns e rar;e .{1uo TLI lAIJ'JEdSUTd -IVU N,L-IN ]-SSOd] V T Y t72 -I'HI, HE,AI,IN(; WEB housing, health care, or amusement. But people are not merely problems. Care for people constitutes something more than management of their needs. It also means recognizing their contribution to our values. A crosscultural example of the elder's role helps make this point clear. The chapter goes on to examine health care as one type of supportive concern. Its methods. evelt its purposes, differ greatlv. 'I'he illustrations suggest approaches for meeting the health needs of the individual that are far more congruent to the person's beliefs and interpersonal role than methods of health care in the West. Finally, we review the chilling evidence that contemporary Western society has learned little from the successes of these alternative ways of organizing supportive ties among peoples. Even worse, we appear to be hellbent on eradicating such examples from the face of the earth. Such callousness will result in a loss to all of us. In presentins these contrasts, it is imperative to point out that the particular cultural aspects we have selected can only be fully appreciated in the context of their own surroundings. Transplanting one or another aspect of supportive caring that is different from modern Western examples does not mean the practice could be made to work here. Nor should the success of one set of practices in a culture blind us to difficulties of that culture in other areas of life. Still, if our goal is to learn about caring, an item our own culture frequently lacks, there is potential advantage in reviewing our own values by examining those of different cultures. CHANGE WITHOUT ALIENATION INJAPAN Much of the uprooting of traditional family and community ties in Europe and North America has been associated historically with the transition from a rural society to an industrial and urban society. The transition, occurring over one hundred years, was ajolt to the traditional patterns of social ties. In Japan, however, a predominantly rural nation changed to an urban, industrial one in less than three decades. The traditional, paternalistic arrangements between land owners and tenants was largely replaced by land reform. A rigid class system gave way to an open one, and the extended family dominated by the male line was, in a significant measure, replaced by the nuclear family. Meanwhile, large firms came to dominate the economic picture. These changes have produced a number of pressures acknowledged by the Japanese, but some of the differences with the West in accommodating the change are remarkable. The divorce rate has risen only slightly in Japan. Likewise, the crime rate has remained relatively low. During this period of migration to the cities, certain features of Japanese society have apparently served as buffers. Some of this buffering is due to Jo asuas E pue Sur8uolaq Jo asues € sJaJJo leqt Lueduor e olur uortfalas I€ntua^e suearu luapnls aql ol ssarfns 'aturt teqt te ,(trsranrun aqt q8norqt luaurarue^p€ Jo eurl J€all u eJnsse pue ualre8repuDl qrr.r uorlJales Ierlrur a{eu slooqfs (paleralacre) oTasntcsa euros 'afuellnupE JoJ suorleunuexe elrlr -taduror arrnbar slooqls Lrepuoras ua,rg 'dnor8 srqt urqlrm aprfrns Jo sater qBIq ul patJagal sr ler{l elu€lsrunf,Jrl aleunuoJun ue 'uorsuel snopueur -art rapun s-ra8euaal pue stuef,salope areld ,{eqa ,,'11aq uorteurrrrexa ,,,n4o31[ uaqzqs se asauedef ur ol paJJeJaJ aJ€ slsal aqJ .sarlrsJalrun eseql ol suorleu -lurpxe aluzJlua Suunp sJnflo 'uaql 'lurod Surpoap aqa 'l.1rsra,lrun snors -rtsard E ruo{ uortralas sapnlfur s.{e,up arnpacord aqt tnq 'suortupuollrluo -rer leuosrad,{q papre eq saturtatuos,(eu.{laoos asauedef ur uortralas 'urrJ ar{l ot uorlJalas srq uodn aJoJeraqt sr ueur L:e1es aterodror B Jo aJII aqt ur lurod lerrtul ar{J '.{rlu,(ol {Ea^{ Jo u8rs e sr rar{toue ot .{ued -ruoJ auo ruorg Sur8ueq) efurs 'aeuarradxa uo anlul a1ur1 sareld uorlerodror asauedef aqa 'Surueauap alrnb paraprsuof, sr ruroJ ,(ue ur ereJla.4\ afurs lueuodlur .{1-relnrrued sl ,{lFnras srqa 'asnods parrsap lg8lq e sr ra{rom uorlurodror perrulus aqt puu 'a,rrtlzruu aJntnJ srqt purJ uauom ,(uetr11 '.{lunras Jo aruernsse atelduor aql pu€ spJe.t4.ar paper8 Jo tas B epnlJur tural-8uo1 eqt ra^o aruzruroJrad poo8 pue '.{urrJ eqt ot {tle.{ol ,,{rgolues roJ salltuefur tnq 'tsrr; te lsapou sr led aqa 'tuau,{oldure tsJrJ s,ueur aqr ,(y1err -d,{t 'tuaueturad sr uorterlr.JJu slqJ '{rom Jo areld rraqt ot uaru Jo uorturlrll€ aqt .{q parepro .{ytearS sr rqforuu tr\l ur 3ur,rr1 'stredratunof uratsalA rraqt Jo asoqt upr{l parapnll ssal pue snorrnxnl ssal ar€ seuoq ellts-asaueduf rraq.l '(1njaread pue ralnb) Dlnztqs sE spooqroqq8rau rraqt eqrnsap rqrotuul^I lo slueprser eqJ 'suortezrue8ro a8rel ur sraryom perrelps go dnor8 Surpuedxa 'a8re1 u 3o ,(pnts e Jo els aqt sem ter{t qrnqns o,{1oa ssell-eJppru E sr rqroru -etrq ',{lrpqrsuodsar ,{11urzg Jo uortrp€rt str uodn spl}nq ueduf urapo6 'u.\ro Jreql uo slBnpr^rpur Jo ueqt raqler rar{touu ot dnor8 auo tuor; suortrsuerl parapro Jo euo ueeq seq ,{trlrqou 3o ,{:otsrq aql 'uedef u1 '.{rapzrurol pue ,(11e,{o1 roy san8zal -lor Jo dno-r8 ,ll.eu e papr,rord ral,oldura .\{eu aql 'spueqsnq rraqt qtrm lua,u ,(lleuortrp€rt uauroM 'a8err;uu srq ur Surtsrsse rn Sur8uerru Jo tuatxe eqt ot ue.te 'uos prrr{t ro puores ar{l roJ l.lpuralud papr,rord oqm euo aql se.vr ra,{o1dua .\{eu aq-L ',{1n aqt ur aldoad 8unol. ar{t roJ areld e Sur8ueue uI Ietuatunrlsul s€,f\ '!srepla a8elF,r lErol eqt ro ',{IuzJ aql asnElaq palJoJ -urer se,\{ 8urles auoq aql 3o l.lrroqlne aqa 'lyue; tuo{ erueraJratur alnrl I{11.4\ elerol ,^.reu € ot rdupe o1 tnq a)roqr alDrl peq suos .ra8uno,{ aqt tnq 'sao -ua8;aua ur luasard s,(e.nye s€M auoq ,{1gruz3 er{J '{lle aql ur sdrqsarrluard -de luarled '3uo1 q8norqt .{e,u rreqt aIeru pue a1e-r8rur ot patradxe era^ suos raqto pue '.rraq rqt sam uos tsaplo aqr '.(luey aseuuduf eqt uJ 'aturt Jo qtr.4{ sarl a8essed eqt tnoqu a,rrtradsrad e ol satelar lr go rred pue ',{1rue3 aqt t74 -T'HE HF,ALIN(; WEI] security-qualities once associated rvith a large extended farnily and a successful family farm. Once students have been accepted into the university, remarkably few f'ailures or dropouts are reported. Competition there, as within the firm, is greatly reduced. A striking feature of competitive pressures for achievement in Western societies is that they create a sense of rivalry among people-between siblings, schoolmates, across generations, and with fellow workers. In Japan, this rivalry is definitely muted. Grades are unimportant, and the success of one family member is shared by all. Friends preserve a sense of loyalty; rivalry is reserved for strangers. In keeping with Japanese religious and philosophical th<-rught, success is not a sudden, drarnatic event, but evolves over a long period of time through discipline and patience. When people rnake the transition, whether to a large firm or to some smaller, usually more paternal enterprise, the tie with the initial family or clan is carefully preserved and serves as a backup security system. "fhere is, however, a great deal of security in this ferocious sense of loyaltv to the company and the feeling that one's advancement and successes are incontrovertibly tied to the well-being of one's group. The individual is eager tcr see the group change, accommodate, and succeed and is cautious about departing from its wishes. This sense of group loyalty has provided a remarkable buffer against the anomie of individuals, so common during rapid social change (Vogel 1968). Americans tend to confuse the Japanese sense of loyalty and group identification with an absence of individuality and lack of definition of self. Those more f'amiliar with Japanese culture find that the self concept is alive and well in Japan but that it has a different meaning. For the American, identity is obtained by creating a trail of individual attainments. For the Japanese, identity is within, to be found by discovering one's connection with other people. Hence, a role may have some highly individualistic components, but role dedication and loyalty are the normal forms of Japanese self-expression. T'he Japanese word "uchi" means house. It also means family or family circle. There is still more richness in the meaning, however, for it is used to mean a company or a group in which the spirit of family connection exists. The concept is highly important to our understanding of supportive ties. The more we look outside of the values of Euro-American culture, the more we see our own culture as the odd one, the one that places little basic value on our connections with others and focuses more concern upon ourselves" The American response to Japanese successes has been to look upon the Japanese firm as a set of techniques that, if competitively successful, can be taken over by American firms. If we copy Japanese techniques without the values, however, the experiment seems likely both to fail in this country and to endanger the concept's lastine value in Japan. Finally, it rvoulcl lrc , ... has cushioned the Incl .r.::.-, provided as secure .L r ..-: qtrite disadvanleqe(l i: 'r.'. themselves, and. br \\ r-1. :' and communin'roles. THEJEWISH F,\\{rL\ r Survival lake. ttt.,:.. : clf Eastern Ettrr,pe. II.r.r- . from Egvpt. The r'alk :: :: l thousand years for a Lrr. : .: land. Throughorrt thc . ., : nant with God so dct.,:.- . " was to learn all its te,rch.:-.:. sure of worldlv sttcces. elemerrts that strst.rirrc : . :'. T:.. embodied in the sl.rtctl T -of its host collntr\. Tl-.: : Crtrsades drore ., :' : Every aspect of i:i: .:The aspect of most c, ,r -.:: people to one altother T:: terminationS thr l' ', dest I, ,r c, - following the totttttr.,:. .:: beings. God forgire\ \:: \ -:people who do not 1(,:..'.: atone and seek tillgl\(' :" Smafter to earn one s L'-.... the concept of a "rtrt;.., the "mitzvas" \rere ( '' , i . -. '. o[trarrt1tri..". . ' discouraged. Rather'. r' :'- ' in direct repa) rnent. I .. : . ' joys and successes. The extended t.,:: whether it be rrrortct i : , relative might be otrl. :..:. was not one . The task of nrakr:-.= -: parenthood. lb thi. ct. i -- and sacrificing. P;rren:. ,:'. : o[ a special feelins , 'L ;. . . o1 uaaq seq sessaJlns asJuf. 'uedef ur enle.\ Frrnr': Ilp.J ot r{toq ,{1ay1 sruaas ru-r.r -qra1 asauedef ,{dor r\\ II i ,{1:,rrtrtaduror 3r'teqr sani',:' -eqreur E sE,{{ ,{trsoraua8 qlns 'patrauuol llalouar ,{yuo aq lq8rur e^ltBlar aqr qlinoqtle-leatu e ro 'a,rr1 o1 areld e ',fu.uop e -ro3 .,{auoru eq tr raqler{M liuraq tnoqlr,n a.rrli ot petradxa oslu sEM ,{11uq pepuetxa aqJ -palse 'sassaJfns pue s,{o[ s.reqto qree ur punoJ,{11ure; aqr (slo[1 saqyvu eq] ur tnq stuau.{edar trarrp ur tou 'a^ol I€tuar€d ;cl uorteco;dr:a; tuorJ etupl tr 'raqtu; 'pa8ernorsrp .{yuo sareld teqt euo aqt 'rrro pp, uJafuoJ aJoru sasn)oJ PrrE ! uBfrJaruv-oJng Jo senlP \ r-3o Surpuets"ropun Jno ot ruf ,{11ue.3 Jo tFlds er{t qrrq.u ir 'rana.noq 'Surueau eqt rir ), asauedef 3o sruJOJ leru-rr)'Lr : ,{Felnrrued lou pue luanbar; se,tr luatun8Je Jlurs '.(trlrnbuert Jo euo tou se,{\ auoq eqt Jo (aread) tuoleqs aqa '(rradsat) 'suata qqaup Jo 8ur1aa; leoads e go stuardlrar aram-sJaplo IIB osle tnq-relnrrt-red ur slua-red '8urrr;ures pue '8ur.(uo,lt '8ur1ol .{lluelsuor s€,{\ raqlou patqs aqt '.pua srqt oa 'pooqluared go luo8 lua;8 aql se,u s,uaf poo8 olur uarplrql Sunleur Jo Isul aqJ '8ur,rr1 ,{lrep q8norqr s8urssalq s,ouo urzo ot rJtJerus pue JeJes se.\{ tr 1nq 'sroqq8rau s.euo uro{ ssaualr8roy laas pus auolu ot sartrunuoddo yenlu aram areqJ -reqtou€ auo a,tr8ro; lou op oq,u, aldoad tsure8e surs a,rr8rog tou seop aH tnq 'pog lsure8u surs sa,lr8-ro; pog 's8uraq -ueJ suEetu osle ]J 'asnr )u ! .i ueunq Suorue sdrqsuortela; Surqursard sluaupuuunuol aqr 3ur.uo11o3 -ulol fIlsI[enpIAIpuI .\[qr:rq ! uollfauuof s,euo .HuLra.r,,..1 el{l Jod 'sluaurur€ltE [r]nlr:." 'uerrratuy aql JoC 'Srrrrrr:'-l J.\tJ€ sr lde:uor 11as JLI I t I" l : 'flas Jo uortrurlep Jo IJEI l,,L! dnor8 pue lt1e,(o1 Jo rsrrr: Sur"rnp uoruruof oS 'Slpl-r'-r: -Jr € pJpr^o,rd seq .ir1er,,; . lnoq€ snorlnEJ sr prr€ pfr ol lJ8cr sl lpnpr^rpul rrl L . -uo)ur aJE sassaf)ns prrE tu: aqt ot l1ye,(o1 'il 'sI eJaqI'urals,(s -ro Jo asurs slr, lluntas cir- lpuu3 Itsrtrur eql qlr\\ ir- auros ol Jcr ruJrJ a8:ey e or :: i 'aruarled pue arrrlcl: lnq ']ua^a lrteurErp 'uappi-. Lq ,{pulncrtred 'paurua ara,n .{aqt 'spremer lsnl s,pog ara.u ,,selztrlu,, eql q8noqa 'tsn[ pue poo8 qroq Suruadduq .{ue -ro ,,'€AZJrLrr,, e Jo tde]uol aql ur peurquror ara,u uorle8rlqo pue,{o[3o sppom aqJ ']eqtoue euo ot aldoad Jo sartllrqrsuodsa.r aqt qlr.{{ op o1 sBq araq sn ot urefuof tsolu lo lradse aq1 'sauouano snor8rlar ,(q parueque sB,\\ Ilatqs eqt ur aJII Jo lradse fua,rg 'lr pe.{orlsap suorlBurrrrrel -xe rzEN pue surer8od aqr plun pruMtsee sleprJur I€rol aqt e^orp sap€snr) aqt aturt oqt tuo{ patsrxa tr urqtr.l{ aJll Jo apou aqJ '.{;tunor tsoq str JO suorrlua eqt tuo{ pat€losr su.r Itatqs aqt ',(11errd,{1 'ltatqs eqt uI perpoque sP^\ teqt ,,a,u,, Jo asuas relnlrued e se,r puo)as aqJ 'sssrfns ,{1ppo.u, Jo arns -eeru Jaqlo Lue Surq8ra,rlno rEJ luaurur€ll€ ue 'sBurqreel slr IIe uJeal ol sem tueuro^erqre rseq8rq aqt teqt suortdrrlsard stl ur pelretap os po1t Vtlm tueu -elor € rq€roJ aqt sEM lsrrJ eqJ '.{1rluapr pue eJll peuretsns teqt stuauala o,nt sdeq-rad eram araqt rpu€q srqt 3o s8uuapuem rql rnoq8norql 'pue1 elrleu e JeAo uorurruop lnoqlr.u sl.eu.1e lsotule aldoad e ro; srea,{ puesnoql aarqt uuqt aroru pauueds parqs eql ot reurs'tt{ nro{ {lpM eqJ.'1d,{33 uro-lg snpoxa aqt pup uort€err Ielllqlq aqt ot sur8r-ro str selerl 'adornE uretsu1 Jo .,{trunururo...
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