Indian Responses


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THE INDIAN RESPONSES TO THE EUROPEAN CHALLENGES (In Comparison with Japanese and Chinese Models) A_ A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE INDIAN (BHARAT) HISTORY The Indus Valley Civilization , one of the oldest in the world, dates back to 2500 BCE . Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Dravidian lands about 1500 BCE, their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Aryan-Vedic (early Hindu) culture (ca. 1500-450 BCE), the first foreign (Indo-European) culture in the ancient South Asian subcontinent. The decline of the Aryan-Vedic (early Hindu) civilization and the emergences of non- Aryan nations in the northeastern region of the subcontinent led eventually to the creation of the Mauryan Empire (ca. 323-185 BCE), the first greatest empire in ancient South Asia, by a non- Aryan conqueror, Emperor Ashoka (r. 269-232 BCE). Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish invasions in the 12th century led to the creation of the Mughal Empire (ca. 1526-1827), the second greatest empire, not by a native of the South Asian subcontinent like Ashoka, but by the Islamic conquerors (four “Great Mughals” [Babur, Akbar , Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb]). The next wave of foreign arrivals in the subcontinent was European traders, beginning in the late 15th century, then European missionaries, and finally British Raj . By 1858, the Britain Crown assumed the political control of virtually all the South Asian subcontinent following the total transfer of political power from the British East India Company. Thus Sri Lanka and India became the full colonies of Great Britain. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought national independence to India in 1947. National aspiration by Muslims led to the division of the subcontinent into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. Bangladesh became a new nation as a result of the third war between
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ANTH 114 at San Jose State.

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