Class Notes - I Morality Ethics II Ethical Theories A...

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I) Morality ≠ Ethics II) Ethical Theories A) Virtue: building character / focus on actions B) Rule: used to raise children / obey the rule III) Three basic assumptions A) All have a standard of judgment 1) Divine command theory: God approves of it B) All have a view of human nature (everyone either one of three) 1) Good 2) Evil 3) Neutral C) All are either altruistic or egoistic 1) Altruistic: believe welfare of others is more important than your own 2) Egoistic: believe your own welfare is more important than others IV)Ethical Relativism A) Act is right or wrong according to your society’s dictates (arranged marriage) 1) Problem is that a societies rules may interfere with human rights (a) rights are a moral concept B) Situational relativism 1) Morality is situational when you decide to cheat on a test because of pressures even though normally, you’re a straight shooter V) Moral Reasoning A) Egoism 1) Selfishness 2) Selflessness B) Deductive logic: Validity and Soundness, conclusion is only valid if its premises are true. 1) Ex. 1 (a) Argument 1: Any moral theory that does endorse selfishness is not a moral theory (b) Argument 2: Ethical egoism endorses is selfishness (c) Conclusion: Ethical egoism is not a moral theory 2) Ex 2. - False (a) Argument 1: Anything that has wings can fly (b) Argument 2: Pigs have wings (c) Conclusion: Pigs can fly (a) Argument is valid but it is unsound because all three of the statements are false 3) Ex. 3 - False (a) Argument 1: All dogs are animals (b) Argument 2: All cats are animals (c) Conclusion: All dogs are cats
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6/5/08 I) Utilitarianism: blend of hedonism and Christianity moral theory A) (Jeremy Bentham) 1) Hedonism: (ancient Greeks) Problem with Hedonism is that it is based on your pleasure and pain so it is Egoistic (a) The good is everything that is pleasurable (b) The evil is everything that is painful 2) Principal of Utility: (a) The good is good if and only if it creates the greatest amount of pleasure for the greatest amount of people (b) To measure, it is quantifiable using Hedonistic Calculus (a) Measuring intensity into units of pleasure/pain
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