Lect 1b -- Methods in Psych

Lect 1b -- Methods in Psych - Schacter Gilbert Wegner...

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Chapter 2 The Methods of Psychology Slides prepared by Randall E. Osborne, Texas State University-San Marcos PSYCHOLOGY Schacter Gilbert Wegner
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PSYCHOLOGY Schacter Gilbert Wegner 2.1 Empiricism: How to Know Things
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3 2.1 Empiricism Ancient Greece Dogmatists / idealists (develop theories) empiricists (make observations) Method Three things make people hard to study complexity variability reactivity
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PSYCHOLOGY Schacter Gilbert Wegner 2.2 The Science of Observation: Saying What
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5 2.2 The Science of Observation Explain why they do it (Theory) Propose a cause that explains other observations Measurement (Hypothesis) Operationalize what we wish to measure e.g., two different experiments operationalize “Attraction” Distance Imitation
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Operationalization Violence – hit a Bobo doll
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7 2.2 The Science of Observation Validity—able to draw accurate inferences construct validity: e.g., describing what intelligence is and is not, “construct” refers to the “theory” predictive validity: over time you find X predicts Y Reliability—same result each time? Power: Book calls it the ability to say what something is and is not discriminate validity and convergent validity.
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8 2.2 The Science of Observation Bias Clever Hans Demand characteristics Hawthorne Effect cues in the experimental situation that may influence how subjects respond. Cues can come from the experimenter behavior, the setting, experimental materials and context.
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Histogram / Bar Graph Shows a frequency distribution First developed by… Florence Nightingale
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Histogram
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11 2.2 The Science of Observation Normal distribution Shape Symmetrical Positively skewed Negatively skewed Bi modal
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13 2.2 The Science of Observation Central tendency
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Lect 1b -- Methods in Psych - Schacter Gilbert Wegner...

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