Foreign Relations China

Foreign Relations China - Foreign Relations General...

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Foreign Relations General Relations After the People's Republic of China was established in October 1949, China adopted a political and economic order modeled on the Soviet example in building up the socialist country. It also adhered to a basic foreign policy of pro-Soviet and pro-communism. In the mid-1950s, in order to turn around its isolated situation in foreign relations for its need of domestic development, China exerted itself in normalizing and establishing friendly relations with many of the Asian and African countries. From the early 1960s, because of differences with the Soviet Union in various ideological and policy opinions, China broke away from its inclination towards the Soviet Union and initiated a series of independent foreign policies. Accusing the Soviet Union of degenerating into revisionism and social imperialism, China challenged the Soviet leadership in the Third World countries by calling for revolution in the newly independent nations. In the meantime, China also challenged the United States (U.S.) alliance system by establishing formal relations with France. After the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and clashes on the Sino-Soviet border in 1969, China was preoccupied with concerns of its security and strategic positions. In face of the Soviet threat, China and the United States took tremendous steps in reducing mutual antagonism and started diplomatic exchanges in 1971. China was also engaged in improving relations with Japan, and the two countries established diplomatic relations in 1972. See "Regional Relations" for more information about the situation between these two countries more recently. Since the late 1970s, with the end of the Cultural Revolution and initiation of economic reforms, China has been carrying out a more pragmatic foreign policy aimed at promoting a peaceful and stable environment for domestic economic development. China established diplomatic relations with the United States in 1979, and improved relations with the Soviet Union in the late 1980s. China has advocated arms control and has adopted a more constructive position in many international organizations. China experienced a setback of foreign relations in the aftermath of 1989 Tiananmen incident, with many countries reducing their diplomatic contacts and economic assistance to China. Nevertheless, by the late 1990s, China had re-established normal relations with these countries after years of efforts. China successfully resumed sovereignty on Hong Kong from Britain in 1997 and on Macau from Portugal in 1999. China assumed its seat in the United Nations in 1971, and it now has diplomatic relations with about 160 countries. In recent years, China has been an active participant in international affairs, seeking a higher profile in the United Nations and other multilateral organizations.
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Regional Relations As the largest country in the Asia-Pacific region, China has sought to promote cooperation as well as to avoid and reduce tensions in the region. China is a member of
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Foreign Relations China - Foreign Relations General...

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