PHIL186 Chapter 1 Notes

PHIL186 Chapter 1 Notes - Chapter 1 The Nature of Morality...

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Chapter 1 The Nature of Morality ETHICS Ethics (or moral philosophy): A broad field of inquiry that addresses a fundamental query that all of us, at least form time to time, inevitably think about – namely, How should I live my life? That question leads to others, such as, What sort of person should I strive to be? What values are important? What standards or principles should I live by? Summary 1.1 Ethics deals with individual character and the moral rules that govern and limit our conduct. It investigates questions of right and wrong, duty and obligation, and moral responsibility. Business and Organizational Ethics Business ethics: The study of what constitutes right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a business context. Business: Any organization whose objectives is to provide goods or services. Businesspeople: Those who participate in planning, organizing, or directing the work of business. Summary 1.2 Business ethics is the study of what constitutes right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a business context. Closely related moral questions arise in other organizational contexts. MORAL VERSUS NONMORAL STANDARDS Business ethics: The study of what constitutes right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a business context. Moral standards: Are different because they concern behavior that is of serious consequence to human welfare that can profoundly injure or benefit people. 1. Concerns behavior that seriously affects human well-being.
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2. Takes priority over other standards. 3. The soundness of moral standards depends on the adequacy of the reasons that support them. Morality and Etiquette Summary 1.3 We appeal to moral standards when we answer a moral question or make a moral judgment. Three characteristics of moral standards distinguish them from other kinds of standards (listed above). Morality and Law 4 kinds of law : Statutes: laws enacted by legislative (Congress and state legislatures) bodies. [Laws enacted by local government are ordinances]. Administrative regulations: Limited in their time and knowledge, legislatures often set up boards or agencies whose functions include issuing detailed regulations covering certain kinds of conducts. For example, state legislatures establish licensing boards to formulate regulations for the licensing of physicians and nurses. Common law: Refers to the body of judge-made laws that first developed in the English- speaking world centuries ago when there were few statures. (Serves as precedents in court cases). Like administrative regulations, common law is valid if it harmonizes with statutory law and
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PHIL186 Chapter 1 Notes - Chapter 1 The Nature of Morality...

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