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Unformatted text preview: Chad 60 5-12 Oct 09 INFANCY & TODDLERHOOD • PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS & CHANGES • Growth • birth= 7.5 lbs 6 mo= 15 lbs 1 yr= 22 lbs 2 yrs= 28 lbs • birth= 19 in 2 yrs= approx. 1/2 of adult height • Gross Motor Development • large muscle groups • @ birth, head is so large cannot really hold it up on neck • some movement in neck • no core strength • cephalo-caudal development • acquisition of control of muscles, from head down • 1 mo= upper body & arms; pseudo-pushup • 5 mo= lower torso & core; swiveling hips, some ability to sit up when supported • 5-6 mo= ability to roll over from back to tummy & vice-versa • 7-9 mo= sitting up without support • 7-9 mo= crawling, butt-scooting, on all fours, pull with arms, etc. • 8 mo= pull to standing position with support, lock knees but can’t unlock so must fall to sit down • 8-9 mo= cruising; hold onto supporting surfaces for vertical stability and take small steps • 10-11 mo= control of ankle & flattening foot to enable true walking, w/ support • 12 mo= first autonomous steps- true walking but very still unbalanced & easily tipped • 14 mo= more secure in walking • 18-24 mo= faster walking, waddling • 24-32 mo= crawl up stairs, or stairs up one at a time; down stairs still difficult • 36 mo= walking down stairs • Fine Motor Development • small muscle groups • 6 weeks= social smile • 2-3 mo= use hand as palette, can’t yet control fingers & grasp • 4-5 mo= poking with individual fingers • 5-6 mo= pinching with fingers, esp. index finger & thumb • very important in service of bringing things to explore to self • mo= forks, spoons, pencils, markers, etc.; finer gripping skills • first grip with fist • much later hold with fingers to control various angles and pressures Chad 60 5-12 Oct 09 • Teeth • 5-6 mo= first teeth, 4 front teeth (2 top, 2 bottom), sharp teeth allowing biting • much greater risk of choking because can bite things but can’t break down to allow easy swallowing • rest of teeth gradually come in during next few months • first set of teeth began development in womb • teeth fall out in same order they came in; around 1st & 2nd grade • Potty Training • combo of social expectations and child’s biological readiness • some places in world claim 1 yr olds can be potty trained • Requirements for potty training: • recognition of bodily signals/ sensations that indicate need to potty • control over sphincter muscles responsible for closing off bladder & rectum so they can get to right place • 28 mo.=Myelinization, muscle control development, etc. ready for potty training28 mo....
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- Developmental Psychology, Object permanence, Potty training, mo=, stress/ novelty chil