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Unformatted text preview: International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 22: 43–56, 2000. © 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 43 Gender identity, sex typing of occupations, and gender role ideology among adolescents: Are they related? LIAT KULIK School of social Work, Bar Ilan University, 12 Hebron St., B’nai Brak, Israel (Fax School of Social Work: 972-3-5347228) Received 26 August 1998; accepted 14 September 1998 Abstract. The study examined the impact of gender identity on gender role ideology and occupational sex typing among 166 Israeli adolescents. The Fndings indicate that gender identity affects occupational sex-typing. SpeciFcally, androgynous respondents provided more liberal evaluations of feminine-typed occupations than did the undifferentiated group. Regard- ing gender role ideology, gender identity was only found to have an impact among the male respondents. SpeciFcally, sex-typed and undifferentiated males expressed more traditional evaluations of feminine-typed roles than did the androgynous and cross-sex-typed respond- ents. In addition, an effect was found for gender regardless of gender identity, i.e., the females expressed less sex-typed evaluations of occupations and less traditional perspectives of gender roles than did the males. The present study examined the relationship between gender identity and gender role attitudes among Israeli adolescents. According to the well-known gender schema theory (Bem, 1981a, 1985), individuals differ in their readi- ness to seek and assimilate incoming information in gender-related terms. Bem’s theory maintains that measurement of the extent to which masculine and feminine traits are self-endorsed taps a more general disposition to pro- cess gender-related information and therefore to view the world in distinctive ways. Schematic individuals are deFned as those strongly inclined to use gender as a basis for organizing and processing information about themselves and others, even when other dimensions are available. According to Bem (1981a), only sex-typed individuals (who assign themselves a large number of characteristics appropriate for their sex and a small number of characterist- ics appropriate for the opposite sex) are schematic. In contrast, androgynous individuals (who assign themselves a large number of masculine and femin- ine characteristics) and undifferentiated individuals (who assign themselves a small number of masculine and feminine characteristics) are nonschem- atic, i.e., they do not process information according to gender attributes. The theory also refers to cross-sex-typed individuals (i.e., “feminine” men and “masculine” women), but does not specify whether they are schematic. 44 LIAT KULIK Bem’s approach has provided a basis for numerous studies dealing with the impact of gender identity on social inference and judgment, i.e., the extent to which individuals with different identities rely on gender-related activities to make social inferences.to make social inferences....
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