hw2_landscape_fluidity_and_global_change - Journal of...

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GUEST EDITORIAL Landscape fuidity – a uniFying perspective For understanding and adapting to global change Adrian D. Manning*, Joern Fischer, Adam Felton, Barry Newell, Will Steffen and David B. Lindenmayer INTRODUCTION Imagine being able to observe change in the same landscape over years, decades and centuries. You will see changes in land cover, and you will see species come and go. Woodlands may change into grasslands, only to convert to shrubland centuries later. What you observe is what we term ‘landscape ±uidity’: the ebb and ±ow of different organisms within a landscape through time. Since the 1980s, the study of landscapes has bene²ted from the development of increasingly sophisticated concepts for the 1986; Turner & Gardner, 1991; Forman, 1995). These devel- opments have resulted in a ‘toolbox’ of useful ideas, themes and management options, such as metapopulation theory, habitat loss and fragmentation, and wildlife corridors. For land managers, an awareness of these various themes has been useful for helping them in their attempts to guide landscapes towards a desired outcome. It is widely recognized that landscapes and ecosystems are dynamic, including both equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations (e.g. Huston, 1979; Forman & Godron, 1986; Dunn et al. , 1991; Sprugel, 1991; Reice, 1994; Forman, 1995; Gunderson et al. , 2002; Nelson et al. , 2007). However, major reviews of biodiversity loss in human-modi²ed or fragmented landscapes suggest that research in these landscapes has typically focused on spatial patterns, with little or no emphasis 2000; Fahrig, 2003). At the same time, palaeoecologists have routinely studied long-term temporal patterns in biodiversity, but this has received limited attention in conservation-related temporal patterns (palaeoecology) and spatial patterns in biodiversity (landscape ecology) are well researched, short- term temporal patterns are less well studied (Willis et al. , 2007a). The renewed necessity for understanding temporal dynam- ics is increasingly recognized (e.g. Whittaker et al. , 2005). This is because rapid global change poses a series of new challenges for the understanding and management of landscapes and the organisms within them. These challenges include systemic changes in climate and atmospheric composition, cumulative changes in land cover and use, and global-scale changes in socioeconomic processes that in±uence the way humans The Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia *Correspondence: Adrian D. Manning, The Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
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hw2_landscape_fluidity_and_global_change - Journal of...

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