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Unformatted text preview: Group Formation
Goldenberg, Ch. 4 Outline This chapter postulates that the origin of most groups can be looked at in three separate parts:
1. 2. 3. The person themselves: personalities, preferences, and prior group experiences The situation: some situations push people together and others keep them apart Attraction: the glue that keeps them together; if the first two form the group, attraction keeps them together Joining Groups Personality Carl Jung: the tendency to move towards or away from other people is a basic component of personality Introversion and Extraversion The degree to which an individual tends to withdraw from or seeks out social contacts. Introverts are oriented primarily towards inner perceptions and judgments of concepts and ideas whereas extraverts are oriented primarily toward the social experiences. Introverts: withdrawn, quiet, reclusive, and shy; remain detached and even move away from others Extraverts: seek out contact with other people; social, outgoing, gregarious, and talkative. The degree to which one adopts a set of values, attitudes, and outlooks that emphasize and facilitate establishing and maintaining connections to others. Relationality Joining Groups Social Motivation Motivational theorists: affiliation, intimacy, and power guide the choices we make and the goals we seek. Need for Affiliation: high need for affiliation = more time in groups; however, more anxious in social situations for fear of rejection and avoid others when they are treated badly or rejected. Need for Intimacy: high need for intimacy = seek close, warm relations and more likely to express caring and concern for others. No fear of rejection, more focus on friendship, camaraderie, reciprocity and mutual help (happier in beeper study) Need for Power: high need for power = take opportunities to influence others, most often in large-group interactions, at the expense of dyadic interactions. Take charge, strongest for men. Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) theory by William Schultz: Three basic needs can be satisfied in groups: inclusion, control, and affection. These can influence in two ways: how we treat others and how we want others to treat us. Joining Groups Experience and Preference Importance Enjoyment Little or prior negative experience avoid membership in groups, while group veterans or many positive prior experiences seek them out. Positive experiences in groups Seeking groups Value of Groups Joining Groups Social Anxiety and Shyness Shyness present at young age: awkward, uncomfortable, and tense on interaction with another person. Can escalate to social anxiety: people want to make a good impression, but think that there attempts will fail. Leads to psychological arousal: racing pulse, blushing, perspiring, butterflies in stomach. Leads to disaffiliate to reduce stress. Innocuous sociability: general interest in group and agreement with other members, but minimizing personal involvement Joining Groups Attachment Style Developmental psychologists: infants and young children differ in response to parents. Led to attachment theory. Childhood differences emerge in adulthood in variation in attachment style, one's basic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral orientation when in a relationship with others. Secure: comfortable with intimacy, enjoy forming close relationships, do not worry about abandonment. In groups, contribute to both the instrumental and the relationship activities of the group Joining Groups Avoidant: evades intimacy with others ,uncomfortable relying on others, complain that the partners ask for more intimacy than they can provide. In groups, avoidant styles felt group was less important to them and were more likely to claim that they were planning to leave the group. They contributed less to the group's instrumental work only (but contributed to the group's relationship activities) Anxious: desire intimacy, but are nonetheless worried that their loved ones will reject them. In groups, anxious styles questioned acceptance by group, report feeling unworthy of membership and spend less time in groups, engaged in fewer collective activities, and were less satisfied with level of support they received. They contributed less to the group's instrumental and relationship activities. Joining Groups Men, Women, and Groups Women more extraverted than men, especially regarding traits of interpersonal warmth and gregariousness. Women put more value on their relationships, but may not be any more social than men. Women seek membership in smaller, informal, intimate groups. Men seeks membership in larger, more formal, task-focused groups. Group Affiliation
Up to this point, we've studied motivation for people seeking group membership from inside themselves, now we look towards the outside motivations. Social Comparison In many cases, people seek out others because they require information about themselves and the environment. Physical reality can often provide an objective standard for the validation of opinions, beliefs, or attitudes, but often people must turn to social reality to test their validity. Misery loves company: low- and high-anxiety situations where participants are going to be shocked, chose to wait in groups. Misery loves miserable company: replicated high-anxiety group, most chose to wait with groups similar to themselves. Replicated again, most chose to wait with someone who had already gone through the study. Gaining clarifying information than in sharing the experience with someone, particularly when dangerous and they can converse openly. Group Affiliation: Social Comparison
Fear: increased interaction; Embarrassment: decreased interaction; withdrawl increased withdrawal Group Affiliation Social Comparison Misery loves more miserable company: Downward social comparison: more desirable; involves comparing oneself to others who are performing less effectively to oneself. Upward social comparison: less desirable; involves comparison oneself to others who are performing more effectively relative to oneself. Group Affiliation Social Support People seek groups to cope with adversity Clarifying information through social comparison is one way, but also seek reassurance. Fight or flight vs. tend and befriend responses Social Support: emotional support, advice, guidance, tangible assistance, and spiritual perspective given to others when they experience stress, daily hassles, and more significant life crises. People who receive support from others tend to experience less stress in their lives. Group Affiliation Collaboration Groups with a purpose Families, social movements, communities, and parties. Member-founded groups vs. mandated groups (or concocted group): whether those who created the group are members of the group themselves. As tasks become more difficult and complex, the easier it is to complete them through coordinated groups than individually. Group Attraction Interpersonal Attraction and Group Formation Groups are "mutual admiration societies" Those who like one another, more likely to form a group with one another Proximity principle: in some cases people join groups that just happen to be close by. Proximity increases interaction between people and interaction cultivates attraction. Group Attraction Interpersonal Attraction and Group Formation Elaboration principle: Tendency for groups to expand as members form dyadic associations with someone who is not in the group and thereby draw nonmembers into the group. Similarity principle: The tendency to affiliate with or be attracted to similar others. Homophily: The tendency for group members to display certain affinities, such as similarities in demographic background, attitudes, values, and so on. Group Attraction Interpersonal Attraction and Group Formation Complemetarity Principle: The tendency for group members to like people who are dissimilar to them in ways that complement their personal qualities. Interchange compatibility: Exists when group members have similar expectations about the group's intimacy, control, and inclusiveness Group Attraction Interpersonal Attraction and Group Formation Originator compatibility: Compatibility between members that occurs when individuals who wish to express inclusion, control, and affection within the group are matched with individuals who wish to received the same. Reciprocity principle: the tendency for liking to be met with liking in return; if A likes B then B will tend to like A. Negative reciprocity: disliking those who dislike us Minimax Principle: The tendency to prefer relationship and group memberships that provide the maximum number of valued rewards and incur the fewest number of possible costs. Group Attraction The Economics of Membership Although we may be attracted to any group that promises favorable reward/cost ratio, our decision to join said group based on 2 factors: Comparison level: The standard by which the individual evaluates the quality of any social relationship. In most cases individuals whose prior relationships yielded positive rewards with few costs will have higher CLs then those who experienced far fewer rewards and more costs in prior relationships. Comparison level of alternative: The standard by which individuals evaluate the quality of other groups that they may join. Membership in the group is...
Above CL Below CL Above CLalt Membership satisfying, will join group Membership is satisfying, but will not join group Membership is dissatisfying but will join group Membership is dissatisfying and will not join group Below CLalt Group Cohesion
Goldenberg, Ch. 5 Group Cohesion The nature of group cohesion Cohesion = The forces that keep groups intact by pushing members together and countering the forces that push them apart. Group Cohesion = The total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group Cohesion is Attraction Cohesion a form of attraction (that group property which is inferred from the number and strength of mutual positive attitudes among the members of a group) Attraction comes in two forms individual and group. Members can be friends with one another but not have any group pride, and viceversa so that if certain people leave, they'll not feel any group pride and likely will leave. Cohesion is Attraction
Attraction between members Attraction Cohesion Attraction to the group as a whole Cohesion is Unity Cohesive groups are unified, members stick together Indicated by the use of plural pronouns, talking about themselves and their group Also includes a individual level sense of belonging Cohesion is Unity
Group unity Cohesion Unity Belonging (part of the group) Cohesion is Teamwork Teamwork: the combined activities of 2 or more individuals who coordinate their efforts to make or do something. Collective efficacy: the belief, shared among a substantial portion of the group members, that the group is capable of organizing and executing the actions required to attain the group's goals and successfully complete its tasks. Espirit de corps (pronounced "espree d core"): A feeling of unity, commitment, confidence, and enthusiasm for the group shared by most or all; otherwise known as morale. Cohesion is Teamwork
Collective efficacy Task Teamwork Motivation Group morale, Espirit de corps Cohesion What is Group Cohesion? No one best way to measure, some monitor interpersonal relations among members, noting conflict and tension and judging how smoothly members work together as a unit. Several scales and questionnaires available Cohesion and Commitment Over Time Stages of Group Development Orientation: Forming Tension, guarded interchanges, low levels of interaction Uncertain about roles, tentative to express personal opinions Eventually better understand and relate to group, gather information about their leaders and comembers which leads to more open and spontaneous interactions. Personal conflicts between individual members because of not getting along, procedural conflicts over group's goals and procedures, and competition for authority leadership and more prestigious roles. Group members challenge leader (fight) or minimize contact with leader (flight) Conflict unavoidable and required for group cohesion: low levels may indicate uninvolved, unmotivated, bored group members. Conflict: Storming Cohesion and Commitment Over Time Stages of Group Development Structure: Norming Unified and organized; mutual trust and support increase, members cooperate more with each other, members try to reach decisions through consensus. Preparing to get to the work at hand, resolving previous uncertainty and conflict such as lack of clarity about group's goals and individual member's roles. Work: Performing The more mature the group, the less likely to socialize, seek direction, or argue, and therefore gets to the work at hand. Not all groups reach this productive work stage, 1 in 12 in one study reach this stage. Cohesion and Commitment Over Time Stages of Group Development Dissolution: Adjourning Planned or spontaneous. Planned when group accomplishes its goals, spontaneous when group's end is not scheduled. Cycles of Group Development Previous stage model by Tuckman is based on successive-stage theory: the usual order of the phases of group development. Cyclical models: certain issues tend to dominate group interaction during the various phases of a group's development, but they add that these issues can recur later in the life of the group. Cycles of Group Development Equilibrium model: conceptual analysis of group development, proposed by Robert Bales, that assumes that focus of a group shifts back and forth between the group's tasks and the interpersonal relationships among group members. Punctuated equilibrium model: above and adds that groups often go through periods of relatively rapid change. Precipitated by internal crisis, e.g., loss of leader, change in the type of task the group is attempting. Consequences of Cohesion Member Satisfaction and Adjustment Cohesive groups can be emotionally demanding Old sergeant syndrome: symptoms of psychological disturbance, including depression, anxiety, and guilt, exhibited by noncommissioned officers in cohesive units that suffer heavy casualties. Feel responsible for losses, withdraw psychologically from group. Consequences of Cohesion Group Dynamics and Influence Internal dynamics of the group intensify as cohesion increases. As a result, the pressure to conform is greater and individuals' resistance to these pressures is weaker. When cohesive group members detect that a member doesn't agree with their conclusions, they increase their influence over that member until they do. Groupthink pressures undermine a group's ability to critically analyze its decisions. Consequences of Cohesion Group Productivity Group cohesion generally correlates with performance and productivity Certain groups this was stronger: bona fide groups vs. ad hoc laboratory groups, correlational studies rather than experimental, and slammer groups than in larger groups. Sports teams, weaker in military squads, weaker still in nonmilitary bona fide groups and weakest overall in ad hoc, artificial groups. Groups given positive feedback become more cohesive than those that are told that they performed poorly. Cohesion aids performance but performance also causes changes in cohesiveness. Does cohesion cause improved performance or do groups that succeed become more cohesive?
Attraction .03 .51 Unity (Group Pride) .18 Cohesion .25 Performance .23 Teamwork Cohesion at Work: Teams Teams in Organizations Building Teams in Organizations Are Teams Effective? ...
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