Epi_and_HP_and_rates_2008

Epi_and_HP_and_rates_2008 - EPIDEMIOLOGY AND HEALTH...

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EPIDEMIOLOGY AND HEALTH PROMOTION
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Communicable Diseases In class activity from last week
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Epidemiology T he study of the distribution of health and illness within the population and the factors that determine the population's health status
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Epidemiology: A Quantitative Discipline Measures of frequency Counts and rates Measures of Association Relative risk Odds ratio Statistical Inference P-value Confidence limits
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Causality The concept that one event is the result of another event
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Theories of Causation Religious era: Divine intervention Environmental era: Environmental conditions Bacteriologic era: Specific microorganisms or nutrients Era of multiple causation: Interplay of multiple factors Future era: Amalgam of sufficient-cause and population model theories
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Criteria for Causality Consistency : association is consistent and always occurs in the same direction Strength of Association : greater the correlation, greater the possibility of causation Specificity : The supposed cause always results in the same effect
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Criteria for Causality Temporal (time) relationship : supposed cause always occurs before the supposed effect Coherence : Supposition that one event causes another is coherent with existing knowledge
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Risk T he probability that a given individual will develop a specific condition.
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Populations at Risk Groups of people who have the greatest potential to develop a particular health problem because of the presence or absence of certain contributing factors.
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Elements of Risk - 1 Susceptibility: T he ability to be affected by factors contributing to a particular health condition. Exposure potential: The likelihood of exposure to factors that contribute to a particular condition.
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Elements of Risk - 2 Relative risk ratio: The difference in the probability of developing a given condition for those with a particular risk factor compared to those without the risk factor.
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Relative Risk Ratio of incidence rates between two groups Calculated from prospective studies
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