Substance-related disorders+ sleep disorder

Substance-related disorders+ sleep disorder -...

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1 Substance-related disorders Personal and societal toll Care plan and interventions
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2 Introduction Epidemiology - # 1 health problem in the US -> effects on cost, quality of life, society Types - Alcohol, tobacco, other drugs ie opium, heroin, codeine, synthetic narcotics. Cigarettes and alcohol – gateway drugs History – medical use, social use, illegal use Central nervous system (CNS) was affected Client has tolerance and withdrawal symptoms
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3 Substance Prescribed medications i .e. Ritalin, OxyContin Over-the-counter cough, cold, sleep, and diet medication Narcotics ie. Heroin, morphine, demerol, methadone Inhalants Hallucinogen ie. Marijuana, LSD, PCP… Stimulants ie. cocaine, amphetamines
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4 Club drugs ie MDMA (ecstasy), GHB, Rohypnol, ketamine, methamphetamine, LSD CNS depressants ie. Valium, phenobarbital Steroids 1960 – hallucinogens, amphetamines – 1970 – heroin, marijuana, sedatives 1980 – cocaine – injection, smoking
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5 Terminology Codependence - Tolerance – Cross-tolerance – Withdrawal – abstinence syndrome Dual diagnosis - CAGE – c utdown, a nnoy, g uilty, e ye opener
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6 A continuum of substance use Non- use Social use Dependence Addiction Social Re- creational Medical Physical Tolerance Withdrawal Psychological Compulsive use Craving Loss of control of ingestion Using despite related problems Tendency to relapse
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7 Etiology Biological theories – genetic predisposition Psychological theories – psychoanalytic theories, interpersonal theories Family theories – family system theory Learning theories – positive effect of mood alternations, media reinforcement, peer pressures Psychosocial and behavioral factors increase the client’s vulnerability to drug or alcohol abuse.
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8 Grade Substance 8 th Grade 1993 12 th Grade 1993 Alcohol 70 % 80 % ->92% (2001) Cigarettes 44 % 63 % Marijuana 10 % 37 % Cocaine 2 % 8 % College 2001 90%
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9 Perinatal concerns 25-30% of women expose their children to nicotine in utero 3 out of every 5 women of childbearing age drink alcohol 10% of women of childrearing age use an illicit drug Substances = teratogens -> malformations in the fetus, intrauterine growth retardation, subtle mental and behavioral deficits.
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10 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Low birth weight Certain facial characteristics ie. microcephaly, microthalmia, short palpebral fissures, poorly developed philtrum, thin upper lip, short nose, small chin, flattening of the maxillary area Neurological abnormalities ie developmental and/ or intellectual delays; it is a preventable cause of mental retardation Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE)- Less severe cases
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11 Other organs – heart, hearing, visual, dental,
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Substance-related disorders+ sleep disorder -...

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