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Wrap up discussion of Yanomamo Introduce: Pastoralist society--the herding adaptation Pastoralism
Adaptation of humans to environment through animal herding Timeline First pastoralism appears in semi-arid regions of east Africa around 9000 years ago Grains and other evidence of limited farming appear around 7100 years ago Archaeological evidence suggests reliance on cattle as early as 8000 years ago Nomadic pastoralism: some level of farming Sedentary pastoralism: leading to villages and animal husbandry Social structure Tribal structure: almost without exception; hierarchical based on kinship/patrilineal or matrilineal Wealth and status of property more pronounced than among horticulturalists Ariaal Northern Kenya (related to Samburo and Maasai) possibly arising in the past two or three centuries as a result of colonialism and tribal warfare. Patterns of movement determined by water Cattle and camels offer the most prestige Alliances through gift and marriage exchange Household organization Adult male is stock owner Wives purchased through stock obligation Male may have wife or additional cow-wives Power is structured in social categories by lineage and age groups Yoruk SE Turkey Sheep and goat herders Semi-sedentary, shop owners, villages Yoruk own no land and even rent pasture land, make no claim on traditional herding territory. Sedentary pastoralism akin to dairy farming, allows for flexibility in changing economy Gender roles more pronounced than other groups, Herding viewed as "men's work" Economic stratification within Yoruk society Power uneven among Yoruk Wealthy Yoruk control herds, pastures, and distribution Yoruk actually enjoy special status within modern Turkish society because they produce important food commodities. Yoruk are integrated into Turkish society at large thorugh economics, yet maintain strict ethnic identitie through marriage. Large herds managed by fewer and fewer. Pastoralists generally have better health and greater nutritional intake that agricultural groups Work less than farmers but more than foragers Crop reliance makes farming unstable compared tp pastorailism Transition Shift from herding to agriculture as dominant subsistence strategy about 5000 years ago. Modern dependency:80% of modern world depends on agriculture. Nearly all agri-cultures are based on single major-crop strains Western world does not depend on herd animals but provides fodder from agriculture mega beef production is maintained by farming. Modern animal farming involves intake of steroids, hormones, and antibiotics. Each of these have untested long-term ramifications for human health Conflict over water resources
Chief conflict over water is between agribusiness and urban development, not with industry. Secondary conflict emerges from outdated water rights legislation giving those with "longevity" first access. ...
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- Livestock, Yörük, farming Sedentary pastoralism