ScienceTechnologySustainability

ScienceTechnologySustainability - Science, Technology and...

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Science, Technology and Sustainability Integrated pest management, organic food, sustainable agriculture, genetically modified food
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Integrated Pest Management Management of pests w/ combination of natural and biological controls rather than indiscriminate application of pesticides Developed in 1959 by University of California entymologists Incorporates some pre-pesticide ideas about how to control pest problems
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Steps of IPM 1. Prevention Take steps to discourage pest build-up 2. Identify pests 3. Set action thresholds Set a level of loss that is acceptable Past that threshold, action is warranted 4. Control, in this order: Mechanical control Biological control Chemical control
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IPM Techniques Crop Rotation Change crops each year to discourage pest buildup. Disrupts life cycles of insects Biological control Use living organisms to reduce pest problems, i.e. release natural predators Increase natural resistance Breed plants that are resistant to various pests Genetic Engineering Modify genes in an organism using recombinant DNA technology
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Complications of IPM IPM philosophy : Pests should be managed, not completely eradicated Pesticides should be used only as a last resort, if at all BUT, managing pests is more complex than killing them IPM relies heavily on farming skills Farmers must be in fields almost continually monitoring conditions
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Complications of IPM IPM must be custom-developed for each farm depending on crop, local insects, climate Farmers can work with local universities to develop individual programs IPM appeals to younger, better-educated farmers 15-25% of farmers are practicing IPM
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IPM: Key elements for Success 1. Responsiveness to farmer’s needs A. community organization as a base for implementation and sharing of knowledge B. partnering among institutions with two-way flow of information (university researchers, government agencies, local farmer’s groups) 2. Absence of subsidies and incentives for non- sustainable agricultural practices 3. Policies that support sustainable practices
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Organic farming Based on use of Naturally-derived, not synthetic, pesticide and fertilizers Farming practices that restore, maintain, and enhance ecological harmony Methods used crop rotation, mechanical cultivation, biological pest controls Difference from IPM no genetically-modified organisms, no synthetic chemicals
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USDA National Organic Program Not allowed: antibiotics (for prevention) or growth hormones genetically-modified organisms irradiation, synthetic pesticides petroleum-based or sewage sludge-based fertilizers animal feed that contains manure, parts of slaughtered animals, plastic pellets, or urea Animals must have outdoor access and freedom of movement - rule clarified, 2010 Farming should minimize erosion and runoff
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Biopesticides Microbial Pesticides Contain a micro-organism as an active agent
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ScienceTechnologySustainability - Science, Technology and...

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