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Unformatted text preview: Ling 122: English as a World Language Language Planning & Language Policy
Reading: Wiley (Course Reader) A Grass-roots Case of Language Planning & Policy What motivated the campaign against sexbias in language? Belief that reducing bias in language would serve to reduce discrimination? Belief that calling attention to biased usage would remind both speaker and audience of the discrimination implied by the linguistic term? Sense that sexist language was offensive, much as racial and ethnic epithets? What did feminists do to reduce sexist usage? Wrote manuals showing how to avoid such usage. Pressured professional associations to adopt nonsexist usage in their publications APA guidelines for avoidance of sexist language Manpower>personnel, chairman>chairperson Linked sexist usage to larger battle for women's liberation Definitions Language planning: deliberate efforts to influence the behavior of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of their language codes Language policy: official policies resulting from language planning and imposed in a deliberate attempt to influence language behavior by means of official codes Types of Language Planning Corpus planning: activities such as coining new terms, reforming spelling and adopting a new script; the creation of new forms, the modification of old ones, or the selection from alternative forms in a spoken or written code Types of Language Planning Status Planning: the recognition by a national government of the importance or position of one language in relation to others. The allocation of languages or language varieties to given functions
Medium of instruction Official language Vehicle of mass communication Language of international communication Etc. Types of Language Planning Acquisition Planning: planning directed toward increasing the number of users speakers, writers, listeners, readers of a language Literacy education Second & foreign language education efforts Language Planning as Problem Solving Overt & covert goals Linguistic goals Nonlinguistic goals Mass illiteracy Sexist language Need for technical terms Consumer protection Scientific exchange National integration Political control Economic development Creation of new elites or preservation of old ones Pacification or cooption of minority groups Mass mobilization of national or political movements Language Policy & Planning in the U.S. The founders of the U.S. chose not to designate English as the official language English has functioned as if it were the official language Dominance of English was selfevident Respect for linguistic diversity & minority rights Support for minorities who supported the revolution History of the Status of English in the U.S. British Colonial Period to 1789 English dominant among European languages Other immigrant languages tolerated differentially Englishonly practices & English illiteracy statues imposed on slaves Native Americans viewed as separate & subordinate nations Missionaries attempted to promote English 1775 Continental Congress allocated funds for Indian education pacification History of the Status of English in the U.S. 1789 1880 Territorial expansion & annexation of language minority peoples Great tolerance for sue of European immigrant languages Compulsory illiteracy laws for African Americans until 1865 Pacification of Native Americans through education Some Native Americans (Cherokee) ran own schools & achieved high levels of NL literacy & biliteracy History of the Status of English in the U.S. 1880 1930s Height of US imperialism (Hawai'i, Philippines, Puerto Rico) Attempts at language restriction Height of immigration through 1920s WWI: restrictions on use of German & other European languages in schools Meyer v. Nebraska: SC ruled against an Englishonly restriction on the use of foreign languages in Nebraska schools, but affirmed the state's right to mandate that English be the common & official language of instruction History of the Status of English in the U.S. World War II present Civil rights movement influenced language policy provisions made for other languages in voting, education 1974 Lau v. Nichols Supreme Court acknowledged that school had to provide proactive means of education
Lau remedies ESEA Title VII Bilingual Education Act Bilingual Education Types Transitional Maintenance Enrichment Purpose: to transition to an allEnglish curriculum Purpose: to maintain & develop the first language Purpose: to develop an appreciation for & fluency in the heritage language Purpose: to develop 2nd language proficiency among mainstream students & to maintain & develop first language proficiency among minority students Twoway immersion ESEA Title VII The Bilingual Education Act Grants to school districts for implementation of transitional bilingual programs (basic grants) Grants to IHEs for training teachers Grants to materials development centers to produce bilingual teaching materials Grants to Bilingual Education Service Centers to provide technical assistance Problems with ESEA Title VII Conflicting goals Inconsistent implementation Conflicting research results Political issues In use of each language In qualification of teachers Transitional v. maintenance Distribution of resources Notions of the role of government (local, state, federal) in education The English-Only Movement & U.S. English Since 1980s reaction against linguistic accommodations 1981: S.I. Hayakawa introduced constitutional amendment to make English the official language of the U.S. `U.S. English' formed to raise funds to promote EnglishOnly amendments at both state and national levels The English-Plus Movement Founded in 1987 To counteract the EnglishOnly movement Purpose: to preserve and promote linguistic & cultural diversity Other critics of EnglishOnly TESOL LSA AAAL NEA Teachers Unions EnglishOnly Movement & U.S. English Criticisms of English-Only Ignore the civil rights traditions in the US Fail to promote the integration of languageminority children Neglect the need for American business to communicate with foreign markets Restrict government's ability to reach all citizens Attempt to disenfranchise minority citizens Promote divisiveness and hostility toward those whose 1st language is not English California Propositions 1986: Proposition 63 declared English as sole official language of California Propsition 187 attempted to limit benefits for undocumented immigrants Proposition 209 sought to end affirmative action programs for underrepresented minorities 1998: `English for the Children' (Prop 227) `English for the Children' (Prop 227) Rationale English is the language of opportunity dominates science, business, technology Immigrant parents want their children to learn English Schools have a moral obligation to teach English For the previous two decades, CA school have performed poorly in educating immigrant children, high dropout rates Young children acquire 2nd languages easily `English for the Children' (Prop 227) Counterarguments? `English for the Children' (Prop 227) Since 227, several issues have posed major challenges for schools & parents: It imposes EnglishOnly instruction which is normally 180 days of specially designed instruction in English It doesn't allow bilingual education, unless languageminority parents request a waiver from Englishonly instruction and request bilingual education But still no guarantee they will receive it Some Current Language Policy Issues in the U.S. To what extent can / should room be made for the existence of other languages? How are language minorities advantaged or disadvantaged by policies involving language rights, accommodations, or restrictions? What are the advantages / disadvantages of intergenerational language shift to English? How is the monolingual language majority affected by these language policies? What kinds of language policies would assist the Englishspeaking majority? ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ASIA 122 at San Jose State.