Unformatted text preview: The Role of Consciousness R.W. Schmidt
Dr. Swathi Vanniarajan
LLD 270: Second Language Acquisition Basics Cognitive psychologists believe that learning without awareness is impossible. Consciousness is awareness. Consciousness is intention. Consciousness is about consciousness of knowledge or what one is learning The notion of consciousness is useful for understanding cognitive processes involved in language learning such as attention, control vs. automatic processing, and serial vs. parallel processing. Conscious processing is a necessary condition for one step in the language learning process, and is facilitative of other aspects of learning. Both conscious and unconscious processes are involved in second language learning. Consciousness as awareness Consciousness as intentional behavior knowledge of what one is doing. Consciousness as explicit knowledge. Consciousness as a controlling authority. There are different levels of awareness: perception, noticing (focal or episodic awareness), and understanding. Noticing and processing are necessary for language learning. Those who notice most learn most and those who notice most are those who pay attention most in other words, there is no learning without awareness. Children pay attention in the perceptual mode (happens to them) and adults pay attention controlled mode (deliberately) Skilled behaviors begin as controlled processes and gradually become automatic through practice. Consciousness is subject to deliberate control. Consciousness is phenomenological awareness; in the case of language learning, it is metalinguistic awareness. Conscious processes are slow, inefficient, mostly serial, and effortful. Consciousness enables one to deal with novel information and learning; it is a process of setting goals and for troubleshooting. Noticing is necessary for converting input into intake. There is a close connection between noticing and emergence of a linguistic item in language development. Constraints on noticing: Unexpected events capture human attention Frequency increases the likelihood of being noticed Perceptually salient linguistic features get noticed Task demands are a powerful determinants of what is being noticed. ...
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