Chapter 1 Review.pdf - 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined I...

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1.1Anatomy and Physiology Defined I.Anatomy is the science of body structures and the relationships among structures; physiology is the science of body functions. II.Dissection is the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships. III.Some branches of anatomy are embryology, developmental biology, cell biology, histology, gross anatomy, systemic anatomy, regional anatomy, surface anatomy, radiographic anatomy, and pathological anatomy. IV.Some branches of physiology are neurophysiology, endocrinology, cardiovascular physiology, immunology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology, exercise physiology, and pathophysiology. 1.2Levels of Structural Organization and Body Systems I.The human body consists of six levels of structural organization: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismal. II.Cells are the basic structural and functional living units of an organism and are the smallest living units in the human body. III.Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function. IV.Organs are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes. V.Systems consist of related organs that have a common function. VI.An organism is any living individual. VII. The 11 systems of the human organism: the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. 1.3Characteristics of the Living Human Organism I.All organisms carry on certain processes that distinguish them from nonliving things. II.Among the life processes in humans are metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, and reproduction 1.4Homeostasis I.Homeostasis is a condition of equilibrium in the body’s internal environment produced by the interplay of all of the body’s regulatory processes. II.Body fluids are dilute, watery solutions. Intracellular fluid (ICF) is inside cells, and extracellular fluid (ECF) is outside cells. Plasma is the ECF within blood vessels. Interstitial fluid is the ECF that fills spaces between

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