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Unformatted text preview: 5 NationalIsts And ComMuniStS Just as the cycle of birth, life, death, Ad rebirth Occurs at many diFer- ent speeds in varying parts of the naTuRal wo¡d¢ with sOme organisms racing through it in days and others meandering alOng its course over centuries, this sequence can mOve at radically different Paces in the pOlitical worLd. £his was ce¤ainLy true in China, where Over the miL- lennia some dynas¥es lasted Only a generatiOn while others endured for centuries¦ £he decade after 1928 was one where the pace was exceptionalLy fast, as two pOlitical mOVementS§¨Nationalist and COM© munistª«aced through their respective life cycles in different parts of their mutual habitat, the NatiOnalists in the lush river valleys and team¬ ing urban centers of China's heartland and the COmmunists in scrubby mountain regions at the natiOns ®inges¯ ° Chiang Kai±shek fOLlowed his success²l Nor³he´ Expedition by seLecting the city of NAjing on the Yangzi µiver tO be the capital Of the new Guomindang (G¶) gove´ment¦ While ChiAgs new gov© e´ment had many Problems, it alsO had formidable assets· £he ¸¹ was the paº of the revered »un Yat¼sen, and Chian½ was in a position to claim the role of »uns successor¾ He commanded the most Power²L army in China, had shaTtered the power of the Communist ¿ar³y, con- tÀoLled a substantial part of the cOunÁy, and had considerabLe support amOng the most progressive and educated elements of Chinese societyÂ Yet at Ãrst ½Lance what looked Like the rebirth of a new nation tu´ed out to be nOthing more than a poLitical movement that aged and deteri© orated so quickLy in the harsh East ÄsiA political environment that by 1937, the year Japan launched its inÅasion Of China, the ¸¶ was showing cleÆ signs of decrepitude and terminal illness¦ WhiLe the G¹ was settling into Nanjing, remnants of the shattered Communist ¿aÀty, in the wake of the 1927 »han½hai debacle, were taking shelter in desolate mountain nooks and craÇnies, like wOunded NAnONAUSs AND COMMuNIsTs Q animals about to dieÈ Yet some of them managed to recover and bÉathe new life into their party, especially a grouP lOcated in Jiangxi ¿rovince in southeast ChinaÊ £he life sPA of that eFort proved to be short, and by 1934 the COmMunist ¿Ë was a½ain cLose tO deaths door and in headlon½ Ìi½ht ®om Chian½s LegionsÍ But what in 1934 looked like a mOrtaLly wounded PoLiticaL organism was instead a mOÅement in the throes of a pain²L rebirth that¢ as it Îed out¢ would become the seed of a new incÏation for aLl of China¦ The Guomindang Regime Whatever the faults of the G¶ and ChiAg, there was considerable optimism and good will for the new gOve´ment as it set to work in NAjing in 1927. Ðe uPbeat aÑosPhere was reÌected on ÒctoÓr 10 of that year, The anniversaÀy of the 1911 "DoubLe £enÔ uprising that ended the QIng dynasty, when the new govÕment proclaimed the Öd of the warlords and civil war Ad the victory of the new order× Øt did...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ANTH 114 at San Jose State University .